f cearL C/Aea4u
TROOP CARRIER COMMAND EDITION
AIR CREW MEMBERS r kf i ^
' t>Y AT*
HEADQUARTERS, I TROOP CARRIER COMMAND
7 JUN 1945
A War Zone Fami3.iariza.tion Manual for the Pacific Ocean
Areas (POA) is presented in the pages which .follow . . This manual has
been compiled from material supplied by various Staff Sections of Head-
quarters, ARMY AlPt FORCES , PACIFIC OCEAN AREAS, -and other sources in
the POA. The information contained herein is intended solely for
orientation, of combat crews who may be assigned to AAFPQA.. Nothing
which appears herein is to be construed as constituting policies of
Staff procedure for other Air Forces which ultimately may come to
Increased efficiency and a material lessening of "strangeness
on the part of AAF personnel reporting to the POA Theater of Operations
for the first time can be achieved by indoctrinating them with certain
advance knowledge of current local conditions, available facilities,
and customary procedures, both flying and otherwise. Such, then, is
the purpose of the POA Manual. It is obvious, however, that any real
knowledge of the pecularities of flying or ground service . conditions
in POA can come only by actual experience and by training of personnel
after their arrival in the theater.
One feature which distinguishes, flying in POA from any other
theater and which cannot be too highly stressed prior to arrival here
is the existence of long routes entirely over water,, coupled "with the
rapidly expanding .zones of active operations. Resultant acute flying
fatigue and difficult navigational problems decree the maximum in air
discipline and flying control, as well as thorough indoctrination as
to what may be expected insofar as Air-Sea Rescue is concerned. The
usually complete lack of check-points and the pin-point size of many
targets or homing facilities preclude the use of pilotage in arriving
at either rendezvous points or landing destinations. For these- reasons
the navigator in POA assumes an even more important stature as a crew
member than in any other theater.
Care has been taken- to incorporate every phase of familiari-
zation which will, in any way, contribute to thorough theater orienta-
tion. An early knowledge of what to do and how to do it, based on -
experience, will save lives, save time and speed the war effort.
It should be borne in mind that conditions are changing
, rapidly in POA as the war progresses. For this reason, certain por-
tions of the AAFPOA Manual will become obsolete. Every effort will be
made, however, to revise the publication as changes occur. .
This War Zone Familiarization Manual for POA is not to be
confused with a similar publication compiled for the SOUTHWEST PACIFIC
ARE/l,- which incorporates orientation material supplied by the FAR
EAST AIR FORCES (FEAF).. - ^ . . -.
• • ; BY ' COMMAND • OF BRIGADIER' GENERAL OLD: ' V ■
H. H. JONES, '
CO, 60th TC Wg (2) ...
CO, 6lst TC Wg (2) ■ ■
GO-, Bergstrom Field (75)
. CO, Sedalia AAFld (75)
CO, George Field (75)
■ CO, Laurinburg-Maxton AAB (75)
CO, Baer Field (IS)
CO, Laws on Field (10)
AC/S, A-3 (3)
' CG, AAF, AC/AS, Tng (25) '
CG, AAF, AC/AS, OC&R (I) '
CG, AAF, Air- Inspector (l)
CG, AAF, Winston-Salem 1/ N.C.,
Attn: Chief, Office of Flying Safety (1) ■ •
Chief j Training Aids Division (1) .
CG, AAF Tactical Center (l)
CG, Command & General Staff School,
Ft Leavenworth, Kansas (1)
CG, Continental Air ■ Forces ,.(10) •
""fc? 1p 4* 3b Ft "W 1 1 i i» w
TABLE OF CONTENTS
THEATER HISTORY. Chapter I
ADMINISTRATION ...... Chapter II
GENERAL INFORMATION. , . ....... Chapter III
MEDICAL Chapter IV
INTELLIGENCE Chapter V '
OPERATIONS Chapter VI
COMMUNICATIONS Chapter VII
AIR-SEA RESCUE ....... Chapter VIII
NAVIGATION .......... Chapter IX
WEATHER. . . , Chapter X
Map of POA
POA THEATER HTSTOBY
DATES INDICATE INVASION OR
OCCUPATION OF JAPANESE BASES
BY U.S. FORCES
'Midway 1 1
• iTinion S4/JULY/44
|Torowqyg / 7VgK/«.l
* - ISLANOS
Abemoma e0/N0V./4S\ -
Canton , PHOENIX
— GROUP "
FIJI / ISLANDS
DIRECTOR OF INTELLIGENCE
INTELLIGENCE SERVICES DIVISION
THEATER HISTORY '
/THE PACIFIC OCEAN AREAS
The Japanese seized the initiative in the Pacific Ocean Areas,
as they did on the Asiatic Mainland, in the East Indies and the Philip-
pines j by attacking without warning. In one stroke they decimated the
Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor and shattered the Hawaiian Air Force.
Exploiting their initial success, they quickly over-powered the valiant,
but out-numbered and poorly equipped, defenders of our Pacific outposts
at Guam and Wake. Turning south, they seized in rapid succession Ra-
baul, Kavieng, Ki eta, Bougainville and Tulagi. To the north, they took
Attu, Agattu arid Kiska.. . By the summer of 1942 they .'■controlled' the
Western Pacific from. the Aleutians to the Solomons and were -seriously-
threatening our -supply lines to Australia and the East.
We were unable to deny the Japanese a major objective until
May 1942 when our Navy and Air Forces turned back in the Coral Sea an
enemy convoy bound for Port Moresby on the underside of New Guinea,
This was followed in June by the smashing of a large Jap expeditionary
force headed for Midway. Here, in one of the decisive battles of the
war, the ships and planes of the Navy, aided by B-l?'s and B-26 f s of
the Seventh Air Force, not only thwarted the invasion of the western-
most Hawaiian Islands, but administered a crippling blow to Jap sea
power, destroying four carriers, two heavy cruisers, and three destroy-
ers, in addition to damaging -numerous other warships and transport'
vessels. " ; - ~
Midway represented the high tide of Japanese aggression. Al-
though they were still able to take the offensive, as they did at
Guadalcanal, Santa Isabel, Rendova, Vella LaVella .and Kolombangara,
we had in little more than six months marshalled our strength so that
we were able to fight back. We made our first amphibious landing of
the war . on 7 August 19.42 when the .Marines stormed ashore at Guadal-
canal and Tulagi just a month; after the Japs had taken them. The cam-
paign on Guadalcanal was long, bitter and bloody but the island was
finally taken by two Army Divisions. By the end of the year the Navy
had won a decision in the area too. After losing four cruisers with-
out scoring a retaliatory hit in the Battle of Savo Island on & an d 9
August 1942, American forces came back and in three large-scale engage-
ments , culminating in the decisive Battle of Guadalcanal, drove the
Japanese fleet out of the Solomons region.
Gradually, too, the Air Forces won control of the sky in the
South Pacific. In the see-saw struggle that followed the invasion of
Guadalcanal the Japs were, placed on the defensive. It was time to start
the long journey back. The start wos made on 30 June 1943 when the
43rd Infantry Division, after having occupied the Russell Islands in
February, struck out from Guadalcanal and landed at Rend ova. Simul-
taneously, Allied troops, landed at Nassau Bay, south of Salamaua, to
be followed 5 July by. the invasion of New Georgia Island. From this
beginning, in actions at Kolombangara, the Treasury Islands and Bou-
gainville, and in memorable . naval battles, we pushed the enemy out of
the South Pacific and continued the offensive that was to win back,
one by one, the rich prizes he \ had seized in the Southwest Pacific, on
through the Philippines.- .In the North Pacific too, we had assumed the
'offensive, as our forces, operating under the worst possible .weather
conditions, pushed the Japs from the. Aleutians and. prepared the ground
for long-range bombing of the Japanese homeland. .
Only in the Central pacific, where the Japs had struck first,
did the war appear quiescent. Here, however, there was- a marshalling
of land, sea and air strength for the, long push across the Pacific to
the Japanese" homeland itself. ' Aircraft of the Navy and the Seventh -
Air Force flew long over-water search missions, as they had ever since
the war began, with an occasional raid on distant' Wake Island or a re-
connaissance and bombing mission over the Gilberts. Then in September
1943, American Task Forces occupied the, Ellice Islands, over- 2,200
miles south of Oahu, and Seventh Air Force' Aviation Engineers quietly
moved into the Ellice and Phoenix Islands and began building 'or im-
proving airstrips at Canton, Funafuti, Nanomea and Nukufetau. The
heavy bombers moved in, and on 13 November began a week-long pounding
of the Gilberts. On '20 November, the Marines waded ashore at Tarawa,
where, despite the. terrific aerial and naval bombardment that had pre-
ceded them, they found the Japs full of fight in their cocoanut-log
dugouts and able to resist fanatically for seventy-two bloody, bitter
hours. Simultaneously, the Army quickly overcame the, Japs on Makin and
.the' Marines' occupied Apemama.
The. capture of the Gilberts provided bases from which we
" could strike the Marshalls still"' farther north.. Even as the Jap. air-
strip on Tarawa was being lengthened and repaired and new airstrips
were being' constructed on Makin and Apemama, fast carrier groups of
the Navy ranged deep into the. Jap mandated territory. . The airstrips
completed, land-based aircraft went to.' work on the 'Marshalls. 'B-24's
struck Kwajalein and the northern islands ; B-25's, in devastating
•low-level attacks, in which the, bombs were spiced with fire. from 75
mm. cannons, concentrated on Maloelap. and other atolls at closer
range; fighters and dive-bombers bombed and strafed. Mille and-Jaluit.
On 31 January 1944, following a terrific aerial'- and naval bombardment,
troops of the 7th Army Division landed at Kwajalein and the Japs, after
the pounding they had received from our artillery, flame throwers,
tanks and bazookas, were forced to cease organized resistance after
four days of pill box -to pill box fighting. The other islands in the
atoll were quickly 'captured, as was Ma jure, one of the finest naval
bases -west of Pearl Harbor.' .Early in March, Eniwetok fell to
American assault forces, thus giving us an advance base over 1,000
miles from Tarawa.
Having secured bases in the Gilberts and Marshalls, the -next,
barrier in the westward sweep of our sea, land and air power was the
Carolines, 1,800 miles of island fortresses, and Japan's most formid-
able chain of defenses in the Pacific. In the center of this stood
the great bastion of Truk, anchorage for the Jap fleet and the heart
of her Pacific outposts, about which there was an aura of mystery and
the feeling that it was, as the Japs had, boasted, well nigh "impreg-
nable". The solution to impregnable Truk and the Carolines lay in
American air power. Fast carrier planes first struck the fortress on
16 February 1944 and found it vulnerable to air attack. Then the Thir-
teenth Air Force came up from the South Pacific to strike Truk in day-
light raids, meeting fierce interception and sustaining heavy losses.
Finally the heavy bombers of the Seventh, by this time based at Kwaja-
lein, began their steady, devastating pounding. After eight months of
bombing, Truk was 75$ neutralized, useless as a harbor, its storage
areas laid waste, its airfields 1 gutted.
Meanwhile, no attempt was made. to force a landing in any of
the Carolines. Instead we jumped to Saipan, in the Marianas, over
1,000 miles from Eniwetok, and a little over 1,200 miles from Tokyo.
The 2nd and 4th Marine Divisions went ashore on Saipan on 15 June, to
be followed the next day by the 27th Army Division. It took twenty-
five days of some of the dirtiest, toughest fighting of the war to se-
cure the island, and even after organized resistance had ceased, there
were long months of pulling individual and small groups of Japs from
the caves in which they had holed up. Aviation engineers worked under
constant threat of Jap bullets to prepare Aslito Airfield, captured
early in the campaign, for use by American planes. By 22 June, P-47's
of the Seventh Air Force were operating out of Aslito (renamed Isley
Field) in support of ground action on Saipan and against the other
With Saipan secured, attention was turned to Guam and Tinian-.
Guam, after being softened up by repeated carrier and Liberator raids,
was invaded on 21 July 1944. While the Marines broke enemy defenses
on Orote Peninsula, the 77th Army Division moved rapidly across the
island, cutting it in two, and then smashed north to overcome a series
of tenaciously held strongpoints. Organized resistance ended on 10
August.. During the campaign, medium bombers of the Seventh Air Force
flew their- first low-level ground support missions of the war. Tinian
was invaded 24 July by the 5th Amphibious Corps and the island was se-
cured in seven days. Capture was. facilitated by the aerial support
furnished by rocket-firing fighters of the Seventh Air Jorce, carrying
fire bombs, and by the massing of thirteen battalions of artillery,
the largest concentration of fire power on land ever employed in the.
By early August, Seventh Air Force Liberator Squadrons had
moved- into the Southern Marianas and were using the repaired and re-
built airfields as bases from which to strike an entirely new series
of targets. 'They flew north to within 700 miles of Japan where they
attacked Iwo Jima. in the Volcanoes and Haha Jima and Chichi Jima in
the Bonins. ' To. : the south, '.'Yap, Woleai and the Western Carolines were
attacked,, in September our assault forces struck in' the south, land-
ing on Peleliu and Angaur in the Palaus, and on Ulithi. Ulithi was
occupied without opposition but on Pa'lau, the Japs, aided by an im-
possibly difficult terrain, resisted fanatically. Burning them out of
well-developed fortifications into which they had 1 transformed the many
caves on peleliu,. settled down' to a prolonged, bloody task. Yet even
as this was going on, heavy bombers of the Seventh Air Force were op-
erating off the airstrip at Angaur. , .
Thus, in little more than a year. of offensive action in the
Central pacific we had advanced our bases 4,000 miles and transferred
the area of our activity from our inner defenses at Hawaii to the very
gates of the Japanese homeland.' Contemplating the hundreds of well
fortified positions dotted throughout thousands of miles of water,
this must have seemed like, an impossible task a year ago. By any but
present day American standards, of combined sea, air. and land opera-
tions it would have been.
We made no attempt to take one by one the atolls Japan had
seised and developed into fortresses against, us — fortresses which
they hoped would hold us at bay. for years, until we had -wearied of
the long, 'costly job of retaking them and were willing to leave them
with the heart' of their ill-gotten empire. Instead of this, we
seized only strategically-placed positions and from these let our air
power do the rest, Under the ceaseless pounding- of Army, Navy and
Marine aircraft, such positions' as Jaluit, Mill e, Wot je and Maloelap
in the Marshalls, Kusaie, Ponape, Yap and .Truk in the -Carolines, Wake,
Ocean and Nauru were reduced to complete ineffectiveness and passed
by. Their airfields were kept inoperational, their harbor and sea-
plane facilities were destroyed. .Their beleaguered garrisons had no
possibility. of receiving supplies or reinforcements. Jap shipping had •
been relentlessly hunted down and destroyed by our surface, under-
surface and aerial striking forces.
A considerable part of the work of neutralizing- the by-
passed islands has fallen to the Seventh Air- Force and the problems
attendant upon the operation of land-based aircraft in -the. Padific
have' been enormous. It has been difficult not only to find bases
from which to operate, but once the bases were found, it. was some-
times' even more difficult to find worthwhile targets within effective
•range . The schedule was gruelling and exacting . . The heavily-loaded
•Liberators would take off from a tiny atoll barely large enough to
support a single runway, fly hundreds of miles over water, to. drop-
their bombs through a screen of flak on a pin-point target, and return
over water again to their base. There was never fighter escort for
the B-24's and except for a few missions in the Marshalls, when
fighters covered their return, the same was true of the.B-25's. The
distances were too great. The Liberators averaged 1,600 miles per mis-
sion. The average round trip to Truk from Kwajalein was 2,400 miles.
The burden of tracking down the enemy in his more removed
lairs has fallen to the Navy, Since early 1943 fast carrier groups
have prowled the Western Pacific looking for trouble. Their raids not
only inflicted damage, but presaged even greater trouble for their vic-
tims. The Jap Navy prudently stayed out of the way. Prior to the
great Philippine Islands naval battle, the closest it came to accepting
a show down was during the battle of the Philippines Sea in July 1944 }
and this 'was solely an air battle, with hundreds of miles separating
the surface vessels. When in late October surface units of -our Navy
were able to make contact with those of the enemy's fleet, the result
was little short of disastrous for the Japanese. So seriously was their
Navy crippled that it was able to offer little resistance to General
MacArthur's invasion of the Philippines.
By late autumn of 1944 there was concrete proof that the
character of the Pacific war had changed. The tiny atolls from which
our heavy bombers operated a few short months ago had become mere way
stations on the far flung air routes of the Pacific. The Marianas are
no mere atolls. They are good-sized islands from which great numbers
of the world's heaviest bombers can operate. On 23 November, Thanks-
giving Day in the United States, B-29's, taking off from Saipan, con-
ducted the first raid by land-based planes upon the capital city of
Tokyo. We had already shorn the Japanese of the outer tentacles of
their sprawling, stolen empire, now we were striking at its very heart.
Chart' of Organization
ORGANIZATION OF ARMY FORCES IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN AREAS
CHIEF OF STAFF
CHIEF OF STAFF
ARMY AIR FORCES
——ADVICE, RECOMMENDATION, AND COORDINATION
J /^AN AREAS
'Robert C. Richardson, Jr
"* Lieutenant General.USA
I August 1944
Chapter It ■
1. The Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas (CINCPOA), com-
mands all United States Armed Forces in the Pacific Ocean Area. CINCPOA
is also Commander in Chief , Pacific Fleet (CINCPAC) which is strictly
for the operation of Naval .Forces only.
2. CINCPOA is the highest echelon of command in this theater.
Naval and Marine Forces consist of the 3rd and 5th Fleets and allied
units. Array Forces are placed under the next echelon of command which
is known as Headquarters , United States Army Forces, , Pacific Ocean
Areas (HUSAFPOA), United States Army Forces, Pacific Ocean Areas, was
established 1 August 1944 to consist initially of all United States
Army Forces assigned in the Central and South Pacific Areas. USAFPOA
is administered directly by the War Department and command is exer-
cised under CINCPOA under the principles of unified command. Commanding
General, Pacific Ocean Areas is known as COMGENPOA.
3. The major echelons under USAFPOA are Army Air Forces, Pacific
Ocean Areas (AAFPOA), Central Pacific Base Command (CPBC), South
Pacific Base Command (SPBC), Replacement Training Command .(RTC), a Field
Army (10th Army), and Forward Areas known as Army Garrison Forces. (See
Organizational Chart). •
4. The Central Pacific Base Command and the South Pacific Base
Command are primarily charged with logistic support for tactical units
in. their respective' areas. - .
5. The' Replacement Training Command handles all details necessary
in the obtaining and training -of -all Army Forces 'replacements for this
theater except Air Forces Combat Crews.
6. The Tenth Army comprises the Ground Forces for this area with
the exception of those troops in the Army Garrison Forces r.uich are.
dispersed in the forward areas as the tactical situation demands,
7. Army Air Forces, Pacific Ocean Areas (AAFPOA), 'was established
1 August 1944 to consist initially of the United States Army Air Forces
units assigned to the Central, and South Pacific Areas. Under the prin-
ciples of unified command, AAFPOA is responsible directly to CINCPOA
for all matters pertaining to the preparation of plans, operations,
training and disposition' of these forces. Operational control of Army
Air Forces units assigned to joint 'task forces are as directed by
8. AAFPOA Is the senior Army Air Forces Headquarters in this
area and is both tactical and administrative, in nature and operates
under the Director Plan, as set down by Headquarters, Army Air Forces.
The major units now assigned this command are: - ....
a. Seventh Air Force :
(1) VII Bomber Command.
(2) VII Fighter Command.
(3) VII Air Service Area Command.
b. VI Air Service Area Command: Exercises 'command over all
is signed Army Air Bases:
4 th I
Emergency fiescue Squadron.
AAF Emergency Rescue Boat
Troop Carrier Squadron.
310th Troop Carrier Squadron.
Air Depot Group.
c * 7"fch Fighter Wing :- Charged with the tactical operations
in the air defenses of Oahu and is assigned to Headquarters, Central
Pacific Base Command for operational control for such defense.
Hawa iian Air Depot: Serves all AAF units in the Pacific
Ocean Areas and makes distribution to units of all technical publi-
Q ' 1 st Provis ional Weather Group : Furnishes all -weather
information and data for AAF units in the POA.
9. The following is the policy governing the assignment of Army
Air Forces units and personnel. under the jurisdiction of this head-
a • Gene ral:
(1) The policy of this headquarters will be to retain
a minimum amount of units and organizations as-
signed directly to AAFPOA and to reassign units
to the maximum practicable extent to. major sub-
ordinate, echelons, namely, Seventh Air Force, 7th
Fighter Wing, VI Air Service Area Command, and
Hawaiian Air' Depot. Normally a unit or organiza-
' tion will be assigned to a higher command when:
(a) The unit "or . organization is an integral part of
the organization of the higher command.
■ (b) The higher command has permanent control or a
long range' or overall interest in the unit or
b. Personnel : '
(1) Assignment of a unit or organization places the per-
sonnel of such unit or organization under the reas-
signment jurisdiction of the command to which assigned,
unless specifically prohibited by higher headquarters.
(2) Reassignment of personnel will conform to current War
Department policies and policies of higher headquarters
within the. theater,.
°* Equ ipment :- Equipment of units and organizations assigned
to a command may be transferred between assigned units or organizations
of that command by the commander concerned, unless specifically, pro-
hibited by higher headquarters.
d. . Key personnel should become familiar upon arrival in this
area with the provisions of AAFPOA Regulation -80-1, regarding the new
assignment, attachment and employment of AAF units and organizations.
10. An operations analysis section is maintained at this head-
quarters under the direct supervision of the Chief of Staff. This sec-
tion investigates and submits reports with • recommendations on matters
referred to it by the Chief of Staff concerning .the utilization- of
personnel, equipment, weapons, and allied subjects which have as their
aim a furtherance of the war effort.
11. .l&ILi- The Army postal Service, organization is complete and
serves all units of this command.. V-mail service is available to all
units and should be used as much as\ possible in order to give as much
help as possible in the saving of shipping space and the expedition
of supplies that have to be transported great distances.
a « Transfers, Detached Service and Temporary Put;/ ;
(1) Transfers, detached service and temporary duty, within
this area issued by Commands, Battalions, Wings and
Groups under the jurisdiction of AAFPOA, when water
or organic transportation is utilized.
( 2)^Vflafiin^33ansBiQKfaati^na o£& atkarm&gencies is used, orders
: will be issued by Headquarters, AAFPOA or
• 1 °* Rotation : Orders for all personnel (air or ground) -
Headquarters., 'AAFPOA "only. '
c * Leaves and Furloughs - Routine (for all personnel) -
Headquarters, Central Pacific Base Command unless authority is de-
legated to Headquarters, AAFPOA in individual cases.
d. • Scho ols;
(1) Schools within continental limits of United States
(a) . Refresher courses Headquarters, AFFPOA.
(b) OCS - Central Pacific Base Command.
(2) Schools within this area - Headquarters, AAFPOA
and Commands , Battalions , Wings and Groups , under
the ' jurisdiction of AAFPOA unless otherwise
specified by higher commands.
13 «' The Commanding General, Army Air Forces, Pacific Ocean
Areas, is designated Deputy Commander, Twentieth Air Force, and is
directly responsible to the Commanding General, Twentieth Air Force
on all matters pertaining to those elements of the Twentieth Air
Force which are based in the Pacific Ocean Area. In this capacity
he deals directly with CINCPOA in the coordination of Twentieth
Air Force activities in this area. The major units of the Twentieth
Air Force now in this area are:
XXI Bomber Command
73rd Bombardment Wing (VH)
313th Bombardment wing (VH)
314th Bombardment Wing (VH)
CLOTHING & EQUIPMENT . ' Section I
1. Clothing. , . . . . . 1
2. Purchase of Clothing. ..... 2
3. Desirable Items of Equipment. . 2
PERSONNEL Section II
1. Preparation for Overseas Movement 1 ,
2. Training. ......... 1
3. Tours of Duty at "Outpost Garrisons". ..... 2
4. Leaves of Absence and Furloughs ........ 2
5. Rotation. 3
6. Awards and Decorations 4
7. Assignment. 5
MAIL AND CENSORSHIP Section III
1. Communications. . . . 1
2. Excerpts from Censorship Regulations in the POA 1
SPECIAL SERVICES Section IV
1. Recreation 1
2. Post Exchanges. . . 2
LIVING CONDITIONS Section V *
1. Housing . . . 1
2. Facilities . . 1
3. Jungle Hints. ............ 3
FINANCE Section VI
MISCELLANEOUS Section VII
1. Souvenirs 1
2. Transportation. 1
3. Trophies. . 1
CLOTHING & EQUIPMENT
■1. CLOTHING :
a.. Usually only the cotton khaki uniform is worn in this theater;,
its equivalents in gabardine or tropical worsted are authorized for
officers if desired. Enlisted men's woolen O.D.'s are normally turned
in. upon. arrival. Flight jackets for flying personnel and field jackets
for ground crows are frequently needed while raincoats or ponchos are
a "must" in all parts of "the theater.
. b. All personnel are advised to use G.I. shoes for general wear .
in .all areas forward of . the Hawaiian Islands,. ' For flying personnel
they are the only practical type of footwear. if forced down in jungle
areas. In addition, experience has proved that the coral or lava-
studded 'terrain to be found in general throughout the entire theater
taxes normal wear and tear of even the heaviest types of shoes. One
pair of light-weight low-quarter shoes for resting the feet in .quarters
areas are taken forward by some personnel. Rough ground in most bar-
racks areas and camp sites with outdoor showers and. latrines makes
moccasins preferable to ordinary bedroom slippers.
c. In operational areas and while flying, the following are recom-
(1) Flying- suits , summer.
(2) Khaki clothing.
(3) Heavy G.I.. shoes (no flying boots). ■
(4) Winter flying clothing.
d. Wool clothing ,may be worn by officers in this theater but is
neither desirable nor necessary. Seven khaki uniforms may be con-
sidered a minimum' requirement .
e. The wearing of shorts , in lieu of regulation length trousers,
and short sleeved shirts is usually forbidden by medical authorities
because of the presence of' malaria, dengue fever and other diseases
caused by insect bites. For the same reason collars are normally but-
toned after sunset and mosquito bars are frequently a necessity. The
proximity to the equator of many POA airdromes, with resultant intense
heat from the sun, makes continuous daylight wearing of headgear man-
datory, even aside from normal uniform regulations.
2. PURCHASE OF CLOTHING :
a. Clothing is purchased through Ql Sales Stores. Although
stocks are not rationed usually the items are limited as to the
number which may be purchased at one time.
b. Officer 1 s type khaki clothing is not available in all de-
sired sizes. A good supply of low-cut shoes is available , as are
shoe repair facilities.
c. All items of the summer uniform (except headdress) , in. addi-
tion to underwear, socks, handkerchiefs, G.I. shoes, towels and
fatigue clothing, are available to officers by purchase from the
Quartermaster, making it unnecessary to procure large quantities
of these (except out sizes) ■ prior to arrival in POA. It will be
found that " travel light " is a good rule for AAF personnel. (Such
items as steel helmets, weapons, and gas masks will not, of course,
be discarded to apply this rule.) Climatic dampness causes cloth-
ing to mould rapidly and extra items should be aired frequently. A
few coat hangers are useful for this purpose.
3. DESIRABLE ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT :
a. All Personnel:
Bath clogs (a must)
Nail clippers or file
Fountain pen and pencil
Short wave radio
Wrist watch straps
Light cotton robe
Dress slacks '
1. PREPARATION FOR OVERSEAS MOVEMENT :
a. Army Air Force standard- instructions for movement or" units and
individuals overseas are quite complete and comprehensive if followed
in detail and do not need any particular amplification,
b. Personnel should bring personal equipment they will desire , such
as: cigarette lighters, watches, small hand mirrors , etc. They are '
rarely procurable overseas. (Sep Section I, this Chapter, paragraph 3.)
c. Officers should not bring woolen uniforms with them 'and they
should especially eliminate leather luggage. It deteriorates rapidly
overseas. Canvas luggage is preferable. (See Section I, this Chapter,
paragraphs I and 2.)
'd. The initial movement from the FOE will be according to standard
operating procedure for all theaters: a counter-intelligence plan put
into operation to cover the movement, indoctrination of all personnel
relative to censorship regulation, safeguarding military information,
and the inspection of baggage and personal effects for papers, letters,
documents, etc. that should not be taken beyond the port of embarkation.
Diaries and photographic albums should be sent home before leaving the
2. TRAINING :
a. Thorough indoctrination in principles of sanitation and personal
hygiene and strict discipline in their enforcement are necessary to
avoid ioalaria, diarrhea and dysentery.
b. The danger of being lost in the tropics or cast adrift predi-
cates the need for training in methods of obtaining food and shelter
from the sea and from tropical vegetation.
c. The static nature of troops on atolls and air bases indicates
need for special training in techniques of defensive combat.
d. All troops should receive instruction in amphibious training.
e. Swimming instruction is mandatory for all units staging in this
f. Special training should be given in the tactics, ruses and de-
ceptive measures of ihe^Jamne.se .soldier.^ . '
Page 2 . -
g. Get all the information you can concerning the Pacific Ocean
Areas - the land, the people , the ocean. Check with the Information
Education Officer at your station for source material. Time-space
element is -important -in keeping yourself properly orientated in this
3. TOURS OF DUTY AT "OUTPOST GARRISONS" : ./
• a. The Commanding General, USAFFOA, has an announced policy
stating that the duration of duty tours at the smaller garrisons -
within the- Pacific Ocean Areas, i.e., Canton, Christmas, Fanning,
APO 459 3 ..etc.. r be reduced to a .minimum consistent with limited
' transportation facilities, available and the tactical requirements.
b. The designation of normal duty tours at these "Outpost Gar-
risons" are announced from time to time by Headquarters, USAFPOA.
c. The Commanding General, AAFPOA, is responsible for the re-
lief of AAF personnel, other than combat crews, in accordance with
the policy of Headquarters, USAFPOA. Personnel who are relieved from
'duty at "Outpost Garrisons" are returned to the Hawaiian group for
further duty or disposition and replacements are furnished based
upon, requisitions, submitted by Garrison Commanders concerned.
4. lEAVES OF ABSENCE & FURLOUGHS : .
a.' Regular leaves and furloughs (thirty days plus travel time.)
to the continental United States are granted to selected appli-
cants in the following categories, with priority as listed, based,
upon monthly quotas allotted by Headquarters, USAFPOA:
(1) Individuals who have completed more than twenty-four
months' continuous service overseas immediately prior
to time of consideration. Those men who have been
in the area longest are given first. consideration.
(2) Individuals with less than two years' service over-,
seas with lowered physical condition and who can. be
measurably benefited by leave or furlough.
(3) Individuals who have ' completed more than twenty-four
months' continuous service, overseas immediately prior
to time of consideration, but have had short leaves
of absence or . furloughs granted incident to a return
to the continental United States on official busi-
In each of the preceding categories preference is
givxin.in ±he " f ft^ ^Fifl£b^Vmte to :
(a) Individuals wounded in action.
(b) Individuals who have been decorated.
(c) Individuals who have occupied particularly dif-
ficult assignments and who have discharged their
duties with merit.
b. Emergency leaves and furloughs are granted when definite proof
is provided that an emergency exists which necessitates the presence
of the individual. The American Red Cross is an acceptable agency for
providing such proof . Air transportation, is provided for emergency
leaves or furloughs.
c. Combat crew members in the forward areas are returned to the
Hawaiian group for ten days' detached service for the purpose of rest
and recuperation, upon completion of a specified number of missions,
or when so recommended by unit flight surgeons. At the present time
the AAFPOA Rest and Recreation Camp Processing Center has accommoda-
tions for 152 enlisted men and 143 officers at army-operated rest houses
located on the island' of Oahu. In addition/ eighty officers or enlisted
men can be accommodated each month in private homes and ranches located
in the 'Hawaiian. group. ,
a. Personnel other than Combat Crews :
(1) The War Department sets a monthly quota for this theater,
which at present is 1300.
(2) No distinction is made between arms or servic3s and no sub-
quotas are pro-rated.
(3) An individual normally becomes eligible for rotation upon
having completed thirty- six. months' continuous service
outside the continental United States, provided that:
(a) He has not had a leave or furlough of thirty days or
more in the continental United States within the last
(b) He has not been on temporary duty or detached service
for a period of 100 days or more within the continental
United States during the last year.
(4) An individual who has been wounded in action two times or
more in such a. manner as to require hospitalization for a
total, of aajjftar J^ays or more as a result of all wounds,
becomes eligible for rotation on the first day of the
month succeeding his return to duty.
b. Comb at Crews ;
Retir ement from Combat - The following policy for rota-
tion to the continental United States has been approved
by the theater commander:- '
(a) ' .-Forty combat missions for heavy bombardment.
(b) Sixty combat missions for medium bombardment. ■
(c) Eight months in combat area for fighter, photo re-
connaissance, combat mapping.
(d) Sixteen months in the forward area for Troop Car-
(e) -Two years' service in theater for Combat Air. Patrol
in rear areas. .
All personnel meeting the above, requirements are rotated
to the continental United States under the provisions of
paragraph A, WD Circular 372, cs, for rehabilitation.
The above policy for rotation of combat crew personnel
does not include those : officers' whose capabilities call
for further assignment co command and staff duties.
Such officers are granted 'thirty days leave of absence
to the continental United States upon completion of
requirements as stated in (1) above and returned to
their organisations _ for assignment.
DECORATIONS: 1 ( V
a. The Commanding General, AAFPOA, is authorized to award all
Army decorations except the Medal of Honor$ the Distinguished Ser-
vice Medal, the Medal for Merit and the Region of Merit. Authority
to award the Silver Star, Distinguished Flying Cross, Soldier's
Medal, Bronze Star Medal, Air , Medal and the 'Purple Heart has been
further delegated to the Commanding General, Seventh Air Force.
. b. The Distinguished Flying Cross is awarded to individuals
serving in any capacity with the Army Air Forces for heroism by
voluntary action or extraordinary achievement while participating
in .aerial flight . The achievement required must be evidenced by
exceptional and ™ r h ° + " nil " -7 y-" anrflJ aljai)iiP*Btf^ + ^ set the
6. AWARDS &
individual apart from his comrades who have not been so recognized.
This also applies to the Air Medal but in a lesser degree. No award
of the DPC or Air Medal is made solely on the basis of hours or mis-
7. ASSIGNMENT :
a. Troop Carrier crews, arriving by water or air, are assigned tc
rear area Troop Carrier units upon arrival and reassigned to forward
area units as required.
MAIL AND CENSORSHIP
a. V-mail is most reliable.
b. Air mail is fastest within the United State.; . however , there is
a shortage of air mail envelopes from time to time. .
c. Cables .may be sent from Hawaii.
d. Parcels sent and delivered by water transportation usually re-
quire from two to six weeks for delivery, depending on the number of
different APO changes you may have. It is better to wait until you
are definitely assigned before requesting packages from home.
2. EXCERPTS PROM CENSORSHIP REGULATIONS IN THE POA : •
a. Unit Censor Stamps - Whenever there is a change of custodian
of a Unit Censor Stamp within a unit, it will be reported to the Base
Censor immediately .
k< Offic er s' Mail - Officers 1 mail must be signed in the lower
left hand corner of the envelope. V-mail letters must be signed in
the inside of ■ the form, in. the circle designated for the Censor's
stamp, as well as on the outside in the lower, left hand corner.
c. Air Crashes ;'
(1) Where an accident has resulted in the destruction or dis-
abling of. aircraft, no mention may be made of the cause
or of the extent of damage done to the planes. Where
news releases of a crash are made, as many details as are
contained therein are permissible.
(2) Where no news release is made, the fact that an accident
occurred will be allowed but no details of cause or re-
sults will be passed.
d. Air Missions ;
(1) Air Corps personnel may mention having participated in a
raid or mission on a specific target or island when the
island or target has been announced in press releases.
.Where the news release mentions only a group of islands
as the specific designation, than the
group will be permitted. For example, mention of raids
on Truk are permitted /when announced .specifically; when
the phrase "other Jap bases in the Marshalls", etc. is
used, no mention of specific targets is permitted.
(2) Air Corps personnel will not be allowed to give more de-
tails of the raid than are released to the press.
e * Articles Purchased at PX* s :
(1) Information has been received from the Post Exchange Of-
ficer, CPA, that only those articles which are especially
ear-marked as gifts in the post exchanges should be sent
through the mails to the mainland, and that other items
such as toilet articles, shoes, cigarettes, clothing,
etc. should not be sent.
(2) The continued transmission of these items through the
. mail to the mainland will add to the already existent
f . Censorship of Legal Documents : .
(1) In order to insure that legal documents, such as natur-
alization papers , . power of attorney, deeds, wills, etc.
contain all the necessary information and at the same
time conform to censorship requirements, military per-
sonnel who execute such documents will prepare them in
accordance with normal procedure using the appropriate
city and county, Territory of Hawaii, as their location.
Address of witnesses will be given as the actual place
, of residence. The oath should be administered by a
member of the service. , No APO number will appear any-
where .on the document .
(2) ' The document will then be inclosed and sealed in an
envelope addressed to the. proper addressee. No re-
turn address will be placed on this envelope. The ad-
dressed envelope will then be placed in another en-
velope which will be addressed to Theater Censor, APO
958. The, Theater Censor on receipt will forward the
document to its proper destination.
o* Classified Doc uments; All classified documents will be con-
demned regardless of the age of the document. This is necessary be-
cause of spot-check by several mainland agencies. If the classifi-
cation of a document, has been lifted, a notation to that effect, giv-
ing the. date -and authority, should be made ^on^jt-^f:. document itself.
Several kinds of documents g-. j£. $ds% Srijj" ...jaBujj faovement orders,
orders, etc. are clafsfjBBMSA^^s^^ involved.
Extracts of such documents , made for 201 files, will be passed when
only the name of the sender is included.
h. Chain Letters - Sending of chain letters violates the postal
laws on fraud as well as putting an unnecessary strain on the postal
channels. Chain letters are prohibited the use of the mails and troops
are cautioned not to continue -the chains.
^* Diplomas and Certificates -i The mailing of diplomas and certi-
ficates is subject to the following special restrictions:
(1) Diplomas from the Ranger School and Jungle Training School
are permitted. » ' ■
(2) Diplomas may not reveal a more specific location than the
name of the island unless the schools are the only .ones
servicing the CPA, e.g.* Aerial Gunnery School at Hickam
Field, Bakers' and Cooks' School at • Fort Ruger, Fire
Fighters' School at ■ Fort Kamehameha , Motor School, . Ranger
School at Schofield Barracks. .■
(3) Certificates of Excellence in any activity and letters of
. commendation are permissible if the geographical location
does not appear and if the certificates do not appear in
(4) Certificates of Excellence in the use of combat arms may
be mailed provided the weapons are part of the standard
Table of Equipment for an organization and have been an-
nounced as being in use- in the CPA.
j- Expor tation of Foods - The provisions of the Hawaii Defense Act
Rule No. 56 prohibit the exportation from the territory of any food
products imported for use here or of any food products manufactured
here that can be utilised. This prohibits ; the mailing of guava jellies,
macadamia- nuts, etc. from the territory. Under a ruling by the Attor-
ney General, Territory of Hawaii, tobacco, in all forms, and chewing
gum are included as food products and may not be sent out of the Terri-
Italian and Japanese Prisoners in Territory - The fact that there
are Italian or Japanese prisoners of war in the Territory of Hawaii may
be released. Detailed accounts of their number, treatment and circum-
stances of their capture are restricted.
Mailing of Plant Seeds - This office has been advised by the
Department of Agriculture. that plant seeds of the following types may
be mailed outside of the Territory of Hawaii without a certificate from
the Department of Agriculture provided they are strung into leis,
bracelets, purses , and other*- similar articles of apparel and orna-
ments: Koa seeds, Job's Tears,' Wiliwili seeds, Kuhui nuts, I.Ioanaloa
seeds, Monkey nuts. These seeds nay not be sent, out of the Territory
in any other form unless they are accompanied by a certificate from
the. Territorial Plant Inspection Office., ilia Mo&na Road*, Honolulu, T.H,
m. Mailing of Film - The sending of unexposed film outside of
the Territory of Hawaii is forbidden. This includes islands in the
CPA outside the territory as well as the continental United States,
This prohibition does not extend to the FBI or departments or agen-
cies of the Army or Navy in the course of official business. Post
exchanges are included as official agencies.
n. Mail Service to Italy ;
(1) Advice has been received from the War Department to the
effect that mail service between non- enemy countries
and dominions and the liberated areas of Italy was re*
sumed on 16 February 1944.
(2) Mail to Sardinia, Sicily and the Italian provinces
listed belcxv will be accepted for delivery:
Taranto Naples Lecce
Bar! Avellino Catanzaro
Potenza Reggiodicalabria Benevento
Salerno Mat era Rome
Brindisi Cosenza Vatican
°» Plant Quarantine Program :
(1) The mailing of the following plant materials and insects
at Army Post Offices (APO) outside the continental United
States, addressed to points in the continental United
States, is illegal:
(a) ' Cottonseed, seed cotton and cottonseed hulls. ■ This
includes cotton bolls, etc. as souvenirs, as well
as cotton lint containing seeds and cottonseed halls
which might be used for packing material. Processed
, cotton lint such as absorbent cotton, cotton batt-
ing, or other form of lint free of seeds may be
used as packing material.
(b) Unhulled rice and rice straw and hulls. Rice straw
and rice hulls are not acceptable packing materials.
(c) Leaves and parts of plants used as packing, materials.
(d) Bamboo seeds or plants.
(e) Sugar cane.
(f) Citrus plants or cuttings.
(g) Banana plants.
(h) Fresh fruits and vegetables, including potatoes ,
sweet potatoes and yams. Dried, cured, or processed
fruits and vegetables, such' as dried peas, beans,
cured figs, dates, etc. are acceptable.
(i) Live insects, including living larvae, pupae and eggs.
(2) Numerous violations of the law in this respect have been
reported by the Department of Agriculture The mailing
of the above stated plant materials or; insects from out-
side the continental United States might have a devestat-
ing effect upon the future agricultural economy of the
country by spreading, plant diseases and insects.
(3) When parcels containing living plants, seeds, bulbs, etc.
and unprocessed plant material not on the foregoing pro-
hibited list are prepared for mailing, they will be
plainly marked as containing plant materials,
(l) Ph otographs of Bombed Churches - There has been a consider-
able discussion of the merits of condemning pictures of
damaged churches, etc., particularly when there ".has been
some doubt as to whether the damage was effected by the
United States or enemy action. Such pictures, should they
fall into wrong hands, would constitute a potential source
of propaganda. It is still the practice of the United
Maticns to. hold sacred and spare places of worship when-
ever possible; therefore., all pictures showing bombed or
shelled churches, cemeteries or other shrines will be
Organizational Photographs - G-2, CPA, advises that photo-
graphs of organizations or units located in the Central
Pacific Area are classified regardless of source, time
or place that the photographs were taken. This prohibits
sending pictures taken pre-war or ones taken on the main-
land prior to coming to the CPA. No such pictures will
be pernutted in the mails.
(3) P hotographs of. Temporary. Graves - The War Department ad
vises that photographs of temporary grave locations are
prohibited regardless of the fact that such photographs
are by official or amateur photographers. This is pur-
suant to the provisions' of WD Circular 206 (1943).
Parcel Post - Although regulations already exist governing
the handling of certain items of parcel post, the following summary
(1) Jap blankets and woolen goods must be. accompanied by a
. 'certificate from the commanding officer in accordance
with WD Memo W570-3-43 as 1 -well as a certificate of de-
. contamination. (Laundry bill will do) ■
(2) Name plates from captured Jap equipment should be sub-
mitted to this office for clearance. Dog tags need not
(3) .Feather fans are. prohibited. If mailed they will be re
turned or condemned.
(4.) Empty U.S. shell cases and .ammunition may not be sent.
(5) Chewing gum and cigarette lighters with fluid may not
be sent and will, be. returned to the sender.
(6) QM 'issue clothing may not be sent as the personal pro-
perty of the enlisted man.
(7) Home-made recordings, If made here , will' be returned to
, ' the sender. . . (
r. Prisoners of War - An increasing number of POW letters ad-
dressed to enemy or enemy-occupied countries and bearing military re
turn address have been appearing in the mail. This is contrary to
established procedure outlined in paragraph 19 b, Training Circular
15, 16 February 1943' j subject: "Military, Censorship" . The correct
method is to address such letters to friends or relatives in the
continental United States who will put the letter in a fresh enve-
lope with a civilian address and forward the letter to the POW for
whom it is . intended. , In -this.- way no military address of U.S. armed
forces will appear on the envelope. In order that' letters to POW
will pass U.S. censorship untouched and to prevent possible repri-
sals or unnecessary interrogation of POW by the enemy, all troops
should be careful that:
(1).' No indificj
ire made that the
. writer, mutual friends or relatives are members of the
armed forces or are stationed or serving outside the con-
tinental limits of the United States..
Reference in Letters to Trans-Pacific Telephone Calls ;
(1) Numerous instances have been found where personnel are re-
ferring in communications, both to the mainland and to
other islands, of telephone calls they are going to make
or are trying to place.
(2) In view of the continued movement of troops in this area
and the restrictions imposed by Circular 141 } any re-
ference to phone calls, either Trans-Pacific or inter-
island, will be deleted.
(1) Activities of souvenir hunters have prevented the accumu-
lation of sufficient captured enemy material for training
(2) It is directed that all commanders take immediate steps
to collect and forward to this headquarters all articles
of captured material of the following types:
(a) Gas masks.
(b) Ammunition and explosives.
(c) Optical instruments (including field glasses),
(d) Firearms (including pistols^ rifles, machine guns,
mortars and grenade throwers).
(e) Helmets and web equipment.
(3) Material will be. assembled by major echelons, which will
request shipping instructions from the Assistant Chief
of Staff, G-2, "Central Pacific Area, APO 958.
(4) Articles, may be tagged with the name, serial number and
organization of the present holder. Return to him will be
made if there is a surplus of that article.
(5) Captured enemy material not- covered by the above is sub-
ject to the following restrictions:
Hari-kari knives > . Sumurai swords, empty shell cases ,
etc. may be mailed provided they, are accompanied by
a certificate of release signed by the commanding
•officer of the unit.
Documents, manuals or paper containing writing will
be accompanied by a certificate but must be sent
through Theater Censor, APO 95 & for intelligence
review and forwarding. .
Post cards, do not ; require a certificate but must
be sent through Theater Censor.
Japanese currency does not require a certificate and
may be released locally without reference to Theater
KEATION ; '
Reading Mat e rials ; .
(1) CPW reading kits are received by all units upon request,
(2) Ivlagazine kits are received by all units upon request.
Motion Pictures :
(l) An. effort is being made to establish the facilities for
showing moving pictures in designated and dispersed areas
of at least 500 men rather than to each unit in order to
evenly distribute the showing of films.
(I) V discs (records) distributed from Special Service Supply.
Game Equipment :
(1) Up to the end of the second quarter, critical items such
as softballs, baseballs, footballs, basketballs, volley
balls and nets, tennis balls and nets, etc, have been
available only in very limited quantities or not at all.
(2) Units stationed in the Hawaiian group have use for all
Special Service equipment and activities, but due to cli-
mate and terrain, or. lack of terrain, activities most
generally used in the forward areas include movies, radios,
vlctrolas, cards, books, horseshoes, volleyball, softball,
badminton, small games, wood and metal craft and art craft.
(1) Unlike the Southwest Pacific Theater no large cities except
Honolulu exist in. the POA. In the Hawaiian Islands "night
life" is made impossible at present by a ten o'clock curfew.
Several excellent recreational • resorts for the rehabilita-
tion of "war-weary" personnel are, however, maintained by
the. Army or AAFPOA itself in the Hawaiian Islands. Other
Page 2 ' \ ■
• (2) Adequate Officers' and M clubs, . theaters and athletic
fields are to be found at the majority of air bases
located in the Hawaiian Islands. Facilities for in-
door and outdoor athletic contests , as well as limited
libraries and writing materials, are off ered at almost
all forward airdromes . Motion pictures are a nightljr
occurrence except when enemy action appears imminent.
Frequent USO shows are also available in most areas of
2. POST EXCHANGES ;
a. Post exchanges are established at most installations of any
size. Units draw on basis of strength reports. Rationing is in •
effect on some items in the forward areas.
b. Supplies usually consist of:
Toilet articles - usually of good stock.
Cigarettes (not usually rationed).
Cigars (usually one per day) B
Chewing tobacco - available. ■ ' '
Beer .(rationed) ♦
Fruit juices (obtainable at times).
Confections (candy, chewing gum and peanuts) (rationed).
Writing material (second sheets make best air mail
Writing ink (but bring special ink for your Parker »51")«
Miscellaneous items, such as shoe laces, sewing kits
(from time to time) and a few other odds and ends.
c. The -following articles are scarce but are available at times.
(4) Cigarette lighters.
(6) Good razor blades (non-standard razor blades are plentiful.)
d. Efforts to "stock up" on such items as razor blades, shaving
cream, tooth- brushes or smoking materials on the mainland or in the
Hawaiian Islands prior to departing for forward area duty are unneces-
sary since the great majority of operating airdromes have field post
exchanges ad equately stocked with these items. It is desirable, how-
ever, to secure personal -watches, fountain pens, cigarette lighters,
flashlights and similar equipment before entering the theater, whenever
possible. Tile great distance involved renders the average battery radio
inoperative in the forward areas, while the use of cameras is strictly
limited by censorship and security regulations and they are often not
worth the trouble involved in their transportation. In addition, the
dampness of tropical islands is very injurious to both radios and
cameras. Electric razors, cannot be used on shipboard or in a large por-
tion of the forward areas.
. LIVING CONDITIONS
1. HOUSING ;
a. First living will be in pyramidal tents, pitched on cleared
ground. Sleeping is on cots, under mosquito bars. Two wool blankets
are used. Some air crews may get air mattresses. .
b. Housing for Air Corps troops under existing conditions will
usually be on an Air Corps installation and will range from a minimum
of pyramidal tents with wooden floors to permanent concrete barracks.
All' housing at present has adequate latrine and mess hall facilities ad-
c. A marked ' influx' of units to this area may necessitate billeting
in pyramidal tents without' floors and use of field kitchens. Units
should have training in setting up under field conditions.
d. Construction of housing is simple and. light since there is no
cold weather to contend with. Due to the premium on shipping, troops
must expect to live with a minimum of facilities, particularly during
the early stages of base development. Standard base development will
provide latrines, showers, operational buildings, mess halls and
screened tent frames for all personnel. Flying personnel are authorized
Quonset huts for living quarters when shipping becomes available. Ice
is provided on the basis of 3/4 pounds per man per day and refrigeration
on the- basis of one cubic foot per man; During initial occupation, how-
ever, standard T/E equipment, heavy tent age and a minimum of sanitary
facilities only will be available. Troop units will normally be ex-
pected to assist in constructing their own housing.
2. FACILITIES ;
a. Water a n d Laundry ;
(1) In some places you will be using salt water for bathing and
will have to collect rain water in which to bathe your per-
son... Plan on getting used to chlorinated water for drink-
(2) Salt water soap, a washboard, wash basin and a scrubbing
brush will come in handy. In main installations there is.,
usually a provision for laundry but it takes time to get
it returned. Half a gasoline barrel with a. fire under It
cleans clothes nicely, providing you use plenty of G.I.
soap. Helmets and cans also serve the purpose. This is
one domeasfciwi <tem»bm@ni>^vher£.. you, have to become self-re-
(3) Water supply is normally adequate except on the coral
atolls where all drinking; water be distilled.
(4) Scarcity of fresh water on many islands makes salt
water bathing a necessity. Consequently, possession % .
of bathing trunks or athletic supports are desirable/
since the presence of service nurses and native women
precludes made .bathing, while after dark swimming is ■
usually prohibited by sanitary regulations.
. -V Electric Current - Voltage is usually 110 DC. Bring a>long
a few feet of electric cord and some plugs and two-way sockets if
you have room. • . ,
c. Security ;
' (l) Check your locality immediately to see if you need a
slit trench or if a shelter is provided. Slit trench
'construction should be given number one priority.
Personnel construct their own shelters . The Aviation
Engineer Officer , /or officer in charge of housing,
will designate' the areas to-be used for these trenches ;
' ■ ; and will assist by supplying tools and materials as
available,- For proper ''dispersal, shelters should • be
constructed for two, three. or four men - four men" are '
a maximum. In order to give the. trench one. or more- •
• angles for the absorption of concussion, the trench
■ should be dug in the shape' of an "L" or "Z". The • end
of the trench opposite the entrance should be sloped
and left partially open as' an aid against concussion.
This end should be so constructed that it can be con-
verted • readily into an emergency exit. Use a covers
ing of any material available, with sufficient strength
to carry weight of sand bags and of length to allow .
over-lapping on the shoulders of the trench. "Follow
this with a covering of sand bags. . ■
(2) Personal Sec u rity - Don 1 t bring your jewels over here,
. Leave' your nice wrist ! watch at home unless it is
waterproof. Rain and perspiration, wreak havoc with watch
mechanisms. Like all theaters where .shipping space
is at a premium, things get lost and delayed. A good
; : rule is to bring what you need and can carry until you
are permanently -settled with an organization.
d. Messing t • ■•
(1) It is a sood^idea to get on the vitamin tablet routine
^ v nu yi 4 " " Section V
as fresh vegetables are served intermittently. Atabrine,
salt and vitamin tablets are free issue - as many as you
(2) Flight rations have been established by CM for all combat
crew personnel and personnel engaged in long range flight
missions. This ration is composed of many items , most im-
portant of which are: boned turkey and chicken, ham
chunks , spreads, fruit juices, fruits, soups, candy and
3 . JUNGLE HINTS :
a. Stay out of the jungle. It may be interesting but you can pick
up any number of particularly obnoxious ailments. Only go. with someone
who knows his way around.
b. Do not eat any fish caught in lagoons unless the natives tell
you it is okay.
1. As far as finance is concerned 3 only a very few things are
listed as musts.
a. Officers going overseas to this theater should be particu- ■•
larly careful that they have one master copy of their service to accur-
ately prepare statements of service. Payment of mileage and per diem
requires copies of travel orders WITH ALL AMENDMENTS THERETO. Copy of
new allotments will prevent forgetting on the part of officers. In
general 9 it is suggested that officers keep a personal 201 file with at
least one copy of every order , allotment blank and statement of service.
Officers will also have to keep an exact itinerary of travel and tem-
b. Every possible effort should be made to have enlisted men's
service records completely up to date. All possible efforts should be
made to clear up any discrepancies in pay prior to sailing. Finance
activities in forward areas, like other services /are under dif f icult '
conditions. Anything that can be done at the POE or rear areas to les-
sen the difficulties in the forward areas will make military personnel
and finance work more smoothly. In a forward area it is hard for Finance
to find out whether John Doe's allotment was effective this month or
last month because John Doe has forgotten.
2. Money is needed only when going on leave or furlough. Ten dol-
lars American money is about the maximum you can spend per month unless
you go in for gambling-,
3. Arrangements are easily made for sending surplus money home
^ S OUVENIRS - Can be traded with natives, who like remnants of bright
colored cloth. Three and one-half yards is the best exchange medium.
Natives also like fish hooks and salt tablets, needles, thr d and but-
tons. Native villages usually are off limits but the natives will look
you up when they want to trade. Americans are inclined to overpay the
natives. The best advice is for you to become familiar with conditions
before starting to barter for native or Japanese trophies.
2 * TRANSPORTATION ^ Vehicular traffic is right hand at all times for
the present. (It is left hand in SWPA.) No matter where you go you
will find people waiting for airplane rides and ground transportation.
"Hitch-hiking" on the ground is approved method if you are not a Colonel
or above. You will need orders and priorities, to get anywhere fast by
3. TROPHIES - Read the regulations before you start collecting trophies.
(See Censorship Section of this manual.)- Stay away from old bomb duds
and bomb dumps. Sympathetic deterioration may or may not be a theory.
1. PURPOSE, ... ........... I
2. PHILOSOPHY . • • 1
3. PREPARATION . 2
4* SANITATION ..... ... 5
5. OXYGEN AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT. . . 6
6. FIRST AID AND BANDAGING. . 7
Page 1 "
CHAPTER • IV
— " MEDICAL
A Flight Surgeon 1 ' s Advice to Air Force Combatants
■ CQ^P-g. to the Pacific Ocean Areas
PURPOSE : The following discussion is aimed to familiarize you,
an incoming combatant , with certain factors in the Pacific Ocean Areas
which will Influence your life and welfare. Facts tend to dispel sub-
conscious fear associated, with anticipatory and half-imagined dangers ,
and it is felt a few tips on Pacific Ocean Areas, environment will aug-
ment your powers of self -'protection.
2. PHILOS OPHY: ■
a. . Your success or failure as a combatant in this theater de-
pends to a g^eat degree on your fundamental philosophy or "frame of
mind". As a representative. of the American people, you personally de-
clared war on Japan , and in so doing, assumed certain responsibilities
and obligations. In order to discharge the debt effectively, you must
have a strong sense of duty. Unlike the younger days of the war, you.
will be fighting on a winning team in the Pacific Ocean Areas'. Our
equipment, tactics and numbers are of proven superiorit3r to the enemy's
arid -your commanding officers are the type who continuously ~are solici-
tious of your individual welfare, whether you are a tail gunner or mess
officer. Your odds of surviving a tour of duty as a combatant of the
Air Force in this theater are well over one hundred to one, based on
past experience. But "don't be cocky", the graveyard is full of folks
who underestimated the shrewdness, cunning and fanatical courage of the
enemy, or who minimized operational hazards. You will be hunting tigers,
not rabbits. -To increase your odds of survival, you must* be tough
physically and psychologically and. remember, your own personal future is
intimately' interwoven 'with' the conduct of the war in this area. The
sooner the enemy is beaten, the sooner you will come home. Successful
perpetuation of your part in the war effort demands that you be prepared
to meet the enemy and nature. Make up your mind to be prepared, for
if your services are lost through your own negligence in developing your
potentialities you not only are dead or crippled, but you have f 'ailed
your country. It is your job to take care of yourself in order to be a
useful addition to our team. It is impossible to recommend a particular
philosophy to you because you are an individual whose background, train-
ing and envirbnmejit are unknown. However, a successful philosophy in
this theater of war must contain valuable elements of a sense of ' /
patriotic duty and a determination to be prepared philosophically, psy-
chologically and ph3rsically . to meet all combat exigencies.
b. There are various types of philosophy or "frame of mind"
which 'may be adapted to your character. Make an effort to select one
which is best suited to you. The great majority of combatants assume
one of the following attitudes under acute moments of danger;
Religious; .Prayer,, faith in God, etc,
Fatalisuic ; • What ''is to be will be; if my number' s
up, that 1 s that; you can die but once.
Superstition ; Luck charms,- prophecies, etc.
Emotional - Anger, Hate and Impatiences "The dirty
little, yellow -> COME ON. LET'S GET IT -OVER WITH."
Rationalistic ;. (Evaluation of favorable odds for
coming through with a whole skin.) "A one hundred
to one shot is good enough for me; if the rest
can do it, so can I; they' are just as scared as I
am. " - , ■;.
3, , PREPARATION ;
• a>. ' Psychol ogical ; Of . course, psychological preparation for
combat duty, in the Pacific: Ocean Areas is related closely to philo^
-sophicadi ' ' preparation . • However, readiness for duty does not stop : with
an .attitude i ;of .M^hero is a job to do and I am goind to do -%t **};'■■,■ It ;
is beneficial ,to know that this theater has in mind a definite tour,
of dlity for you which is well within the range of your ability, to
Complete, at the germination of this tour, you will be rotated out.
of the theater forv rehabilitation insofar as the- tactical situation: :
. permits' i- : The. mechanics of various tours depend on the amount; of ,
strain ;or effort : imposed on you by circumstances and your job, Vary-
ing, whether you are a bomber or fighter pilot, are in t.hq forward ' ,,
or rear .echelon, etc. You can depend on commanders, flight surgeons,
operation and personnel sections continuously being watchful for
strains and expectations of effort which experience has taught you
are unreasonable to expect from personnel. On the other hand, . these
people have been through the mill themselves the. hard way and you
will find in them no attitude of coddling or sympathy for any .one
k. Physical ; One of your best insurances for survival -in
. this theater is a. body toughened and hardened to endure the hard- •
ships of combat. If you are physically tough and kncw.it, it will
reflect on your entire outlook, arid morale. . Airmen are not given :
the rigorous training that Ground Force combat troops are exposed,
to, although its importance is probably just as great. The. tendency
for all airmen in this theater is to neglect their physical fitness.
Their health is good but their physical fitness is poor. .Daily regu-
lar exercise is absolutely necessary to maintain toughness, both
physically and psychologically, r .
c * Intellectual : The fight for survival will be in your ■
favor j assuming you are well informed in the subjects listed below:
(1) Ditching and Ocean. Survival : If it is your desire to
grow old and have grandchildren, it is a good idea to
expect the unexpected in this part of the world. As-
sume that your plane is not going to operate at maxi-
mum efficiency and us a result of this assumption give
yourself a wide margin of safety at all times. How*
ever j accidents will; occur despite all precautions
and it behooves you to prepare for them. Every crew-
should work, out thoroughly an operating procedure to
be followed in case of ditching, with the position
and duties of each man clearly defined. Concrete work-
able plans should be made for various types of mis-
sions, taking into consideration action to be accom-
plished if forced down on or near enemy held bases, *
the ocean, etc. The following references should be
studied with care:
( a ) Survival on L and and Sea: (Office of Naval In-
telligence, USN . )
(b) Survival ~ Jungle, Desert, Arctic Ocean : (Office
of Flying Safety.)
(c) Castaways 1 Baedeker' to the South Seas : (Joint
Intelligence Center, POA.)
Dunkin g Sense: (Training Division Bureau of
(e) Forced Landing of Aircraf t at Sea "Ditching" :
( AC/s7~A-2 . ' Seventh "Air Force.)
(2) In addition, ever^ boy leaving mother for the Pacific
Ocean Areas should know the following facts and re-
(a) A full bladder and/ or a full bowel greatly in-
crease, the risk of fatal complications in event
of abdominal trauma from bullets, shrapnel,
blows sustained while ditching, etc. The answer
(b) Know how to swim. There is an amazing amount of
; deep water in the Pacific Ocean.
.(c) There are- places in an airplane about to be
ditched which are relatively safe. Where are
Good physical condition and a state of
optimum nutrition pay' off when it comes
to playing, a sailor in a rubber raft.
Your food may not always be palatable,
but 'cohsume it as "medicine for maintain-
ing maximum physical readiness.
It is wise to maintain a skin full of
water when crusing around the Pacific
Ocean. The body serves as a good stor-
age tank.' Drink up before taking off.
Ocean water can be. mixed with drinking
water in the ratio of one to three with
no ill effects if the daily intake of
ocean. water is limited to six ounces. /
Ocean water by rectum is of no benefit,
except perhaps in states of extreme, or
bordering on' fatal, dehydration.
How should you ration. your water each day?
24 ounces - if plenty available.
• 16 ounces - if, only a limited .amount on hand.
4 to 6/ ounces, -daily will prolong life with
It is. possible, to live six weeks, and often
longer, without food but eight to twelve days
is the limit without water. It is essential
to minimize loss of water by .evaporation from
the body. This can be accomplished by rigging
an awning on the raft, removing u.l imaeces-
sary articles of. clothing, and avoiding un-
necessary exertion , and .sunburn.
Food must be eaten judiciously if daily water
intake is limited. Rock candy is one of the
best forms, while the' flesh of fish, turtles
and, bircls, especially if dried, should be
avoided. or greatly , restricted, if the water
ration .is lower than a pint a day. It is a
decided . and obvious advantage to be well-
nourished' before undertaking an enforced
fast. Caesar, and' flight surgeons prefer
people to be a few pounds over the optimum
average weight. ' The' extra fat serves use-
fully as an emergency cushion.
(i) People in the prairies of Kansas are not troubled
much with "immersion foot" but it is a disease
commonly- seen in a life raft. Manifested by
swelling of the f eet, numbness and discoloration ,
it is produced by wetness and usually coldness of
feet in which the circulation is sluggish. To
prevent the appearance of "immersion -foot" it is
advisable to keep the feet as dry as possible and
to stimulate circulation by moving the extrem-
eties, elevating them and gentle massage. But,
after the symptoms have appeared, do not massage
or heat . Elevation and dryness is the only treat-
(j) Hallucinations and -illusions (seeing the little
man when he isn't there) frequently occur after
deprivation , thirst, hunger and. fear in a raft.
These manifestations are decreased by good morale,,
a very important prerequisite to survival.
Leadership , discipline and harmony in a group
afloat on a life raft are difficult to maintain,
but necessary. An unusual, or long anticipated
sight, such as a ship, plane, sea monster, etc.
should be called to the attention of a companion
quietly without naming the object sighted. After
two or three confirmations, it is safe to announce
the discovery to all. Avoid mass hysteria.
d. Climate : The condition of the atmosphere and its medical,
significance to human beings is for the most part an unexplored field.
However, temperature, humidity and barometric pressure are known to
have physiological and sometimes- pathological effect. The climatic
conditions in the Pacific Ocean Areas have much to recommend them. Air
temperature is characterized by a small range of fluctuation - neither
being very hot nor coM. The mean annual- temperature .at sea level
is between 70 to SO degrees Fahrenheit. The humidity is often high in
the forward area and if you are older than 65, with rheumatism, you may
develop complaints. The acclimatizing process necessary for troops in
the desert and more tropical regions of the POA, consists in a gradation
of initial exercise until tolerance for heat is developed. Ihen perspir-
ation is excessive, the salt intake must be adjusted by the use of salt
tablets in the water to furnish a solution of .1$. This percentage is
prepared by the following ratios of salt water:
20 grains or l/4 tap. to one canteen of water.
l/3 pound to a Lister bag.
a. The most important time to treat a disease is before it is
contracted. "An ounce of prevention is worth a ■pound of cure."
One way to accomplish this is through- knowledge and observance of
the principles of sanitation. Sanitation is- a command responsi-
bility and a matter affecting the health and welfare of the en-
tire command. The commanding officer 1 s advisor on this important
subject is the medical officer. Unfortunately, there is a tendency
to underestimate the importance of sanitation in rear echelons.
However, its importance often stands put with distressing clarity
as soon as sanitation rules are broken in the forward area. En-
tire combat units may be rendered ineffective because of malaria,
dengue, dysentery, etc. which can be traced directly to negligence
in sanitary matters. Sanitation starts at home and only through
the observance of sanitary measures by each individual can the°
sanitation of the entire unit be maintained.
b. Every unit commander, on the advice of his medical of-
ficer, will recommend arid promulgate sanitation directives which
you, as an. individual, must scrupulously observe. Following are a
few simple rules pertaining to sanitation which you should observes
■ (1). Do not mingle' .with natives.
. (2) Observe meticulous personal cleanliness; special
attention should be given to the care of the
. feet. Socks should be changed daily after wash-
ing the feet and application of talcum or G.I.
(3) Do not eat in civilian messes of .newly occupied '
■ (4) Insist on your, latrine and mess being fly. proof.
(5) Cooperate in all measures designed to protect,
you from mosquitoes.
(6) Report to your flight surgeon immediately when
. feeling indisposed. ■
(7) Drink only water ?!/hich has been declared safe
by competent authorities.
5* OXYGEN AND P ERSON AL EQUIPMENT: "Familiarity breeds con-
tempt", but don't become. negligent from repetitious training in
the use of oxygen and personal equipment such as flak suits, gog-
gles, masks, helmets, etc. Flak suits and protective helmets es-
pecially are to be recommended as they materially increase your
odds of survival.
:•. FIRST .AID, .AND BANDAGING : Every person should be thoroughly
familiar-... with the us e. of first - aid plane .equipment . Your training is
pitifully- inadequate if you are unable to control hemorrhage, treat
' shock, manage . fractures , apply bandages, treat burns and give artificial
respiration, as provided by instructions from your flight surgeon. If
.you : are.. unversed in these subjects, take the initiative and insist on
being trained, in them. . ,
- 7. DISEASE:/ (Not peculiar to Pacific Ocean Areas, but of suffi-
cient importance to warrant brief discussion.) In addition to observance
of sanitation rules, there is another way to treat diseases before you
get .them, namely by immunization. With this thought in- mind, it is re-
quired that personnel in. POA be , immunized for . small pox, typhoid, teta-
nus, yellow fever, cholera,- typhus and plague. The incidence of fatal-
ities from diseases in this war is approximately 90% lower than that of
World War I. .Immunization and sanitation have played a creditable role
in producing this reduction in disease rates.
a » Chronic Fatigue:
(1) There are numerous synonymous expressions to indicate
an individual's physiological and psychological
status resulting from monotonous repetition of physi-
cal and emotional stimuli. . Some of these expressions
are flying fatigue, combat fatigue, war weary, rock
■happy, stale, "missed too many boats", etc. The
multitudinous stimuli which are incriminated for pro-
ducing this condition are usually of the type that
have a strong emotional coloring.
- . (2.) At this • point, - it may be advantageous to interject a
word arbitrarily defining the terms "exhaustion" and
• "fatigue" as applied' herein, j&chaustion is the feel-
ing . experienced by St rangier.. Lewis after sixty min-
utes of wrestling. Fatigue is what the. spectators
. felt after watching the St rangier ' : s •• exciting match*
'. They did not move from their" chairs, yet they were
fatigued from emotional stimulation. In other and
more scientific terms, an individual with flying
fatigue experiences a • physical and psychological
phenomena as a result -of emotional tension which is
, ■ inhibited from translation Into physical activity.
In the above example, fatigue" is' acute, evanescent
and easily, dispelled by a drink of 7-Up, a swim; a
meal, "or a ^ pretty blonde's trim ankle. However, after
. . ' the individual is subjected to repeated status of
- ■ ■• acute fatigue in close sequence, a state of chronic
fatigue develops and Is' the condition being defined.
(3) Chronic fatigue/ then, is. a physiological and psy-
chological (bordering on pathological) state result-
ing from situations in which the individual is sub-
jected to continuous stress and strain ,. usually
emotional , but also physical, to a point beyond
the individual's limit of maximum effort. The first
sympton to indicate chronic fatigue in airmen is a
loss of exhilaration in flying. The good pilot was
never born who did not get a kick out of flying.
The zest and keen enjoyment of being in the air are
lost when chronic fatigue develops and it is re-
placed by a feeling that defying gravity is a drud-
gery and not fun. Accompanying the loss of enjoy-
ment in flying is a washed-out, let-down apathetic
feeling and attitude. About an equal number of
cases, however, will evidence irritability, jumpi-
ness, restlessness, and inability to concentrate..
Insomnia is uniformly present and the little sleep
obtained leaves the victim of chronic fatigue un-
refreshed. Disturbed occupational dreams often
occur. Loss of weight is probably the most im-
portant objective evidence of chronic fatigue and
follows on the heels of anorexia and capricious
appetite. Everyone is subject to chronic fatigue
and regardless of the inherent stamina of an indi-
. vidual, the symptoms of the disease will develop
provided the individual is exposed to the factors
producing it. Air combatants in the Pacific Ocean
Areas will be exposed to these factors continuously.
Consequently, chronic fatigue is a condition which
would be the greatest cause of attrition in Air
Force personnel if commanders and flight surgeons
had "not learned the proper way of preventing and
treating the symptoms.
(4) There are two extremely Important factors which
each airman should know concerning prevention and
treatment of chronic fatigue. First, morale is
the most important factor concerned with the pre-
vention of chronic fatigue.. Morale is a command
responsibility and is derived from a proper indi-
vidual philosophy, a realization of the worthiness
of the individual's and unit's part in ' the war
effort , and the. presence of a. goal toward which
all efforts can be directed. This goal is going
home. The second important factor in the preven-
tion of chronic fatigue is in systeinatic and rou-
tine physical exercise daily.
(5) As mentioned before, the chief factor in, the produc-
■ - tion of chronic fatigue is the inability of tho indi-
vidual to -translate emotional tension into the terms
of- .physical activity. Therefore, it is obvious that
one of the most important prophylactic measures to be
observed is indulgence in physical activity so as to
afford a release from the emotional tension accumu-
lated on the mission.
k. Aeroe m bolism : (Bends - Chokes) Aeroembolism is a condi-
tion occurring in people who are exposed to a decrease in barometric
pressure while ascending to altitudes in excess of 25,000 feet. The
symptoms of the disease are produced by bubbles of nitrogen gas which
are released in the blodd stream and extra-vascular tissue, especially
in and around joints, on the surface of long bones, in the lungs, and
the skin. The symptoms' produced consist of a deep boring pain around
joints and. over bones, shortness of breath (chokes), a heavy feeling
under the breast bone,. 'blue discoloration of the face and a tingling
sensation over surfaces of the body at different points. It can be pre-
vented by any method which removes the nitrogen ' gas from the blood
stream. This is accomplished by inhalation of pure oxygen prior to be-
ing exposed to the lower "barometric pressure,
(1) Hi en- .-'the body is deprived of oxygen, the condition is
known as anoxia, manifested by dizziness, feeling of
unreality, exhilaration, unconsciousness and death.
The length of -time necessary to produce death at
various altitudes is extremely variable as • illustrated
by known instances of death occurring in five roinutes
at 25,000 feet and with survival at -28,000 feet after
forty minutes, •
(2) Anoxia, accidents most frequently involve tail gunners
and ball turret gunners and are - attributable to in-
advertent disconnection of the mask regulator connec-
tion, freezing, mask leaks, etc. and inadequate oxy-
gen indoctrination. .. .Altitude - training ■ and indoctrina-
tion must be continuous to insure maximum benefit.
(3) Treatment ' consists in 'immediate administration of oxy-
gen with artificial respiration. -• '•
d. Dysentery :
(1) Hippocrates, the father of medicine, defined diarrhea
as the frequent passage of liquid stools, whereas
dysentery is the same condition plus tenesmus,
(straining at the stool) , mucus and blood in the
stool, There are two types of dysentery, one be-
. ing produced by amoebi, and the other by bacilli.
The disease produced by the latter organism ranks
with malaria in its world-wide significance. It
is always present during war and famine. It com-
pleted the rout of Napoleon 1 s Army in its retreat
from Moscow. Dysentery, and not the "Terrible
Turk", drove the British from Gallipoli. It killed
about 140,000 Germans during the first war and is
a factor to be taken into consideration before any
of the enemy's secret weapons.
(2), Observance of sanitary rules is of cardinal import-
ance in the prevention of dysentery* Scrupulous
cleanliness of the mess gear, hands, food^' water
and environment is absolutely necessary. The de-
gree of cleanliness required is impossible to ob-
tain without control of flies . It is obligatory
for every individual to observe all precautions
and measures designed to promote cleanliness and
decrease fly population. It is essential, like-
wise, for everyone with the symptoms of dysentery
to report immediately to a medical officer to
prevent the spread of an epidemic in the command.
The disease is well controlled by modern-day drugs,
provided -treatment is started early.
e * Dengue ; Dengue is a disease occurring suddenly with
fever, headache and backache. It is produced by mosquitoes, and
unless this insect is controlled by insecticides, repellents and
nets, the entire command can develop the disease in a short period
of time, rendering it ineffective. The symptoms vary greatly in
intensity; sometimes being so minor as not to necessitate going
to bed, and at other times so severe as to require hospitalization.
The symptoms of the disease last from seven to ten days and are ac-
companied by very low mortality -approximately one in ten thousand.
Inf ectuous Hepatitis ;. (Jaundice). Some doctors are
always a. little embarrassed to discuss .a disease about which know-
ledge is meagre, and such is the case with jaundice. .It is apt
to appear suddenly in large numbers equalling epidemic proportions.
There -are two factors worthy of consideration in any discussion of
this condition. First, it is necessary to observe rigid sanitation
with reference to food and water. Secondly, once the symptoms have
developed, ear ly and prolonged rest is the best treatment. Jaundice
can be produced also as a result of a specific disease caused by an
organism contained in the urine of rats. Measures necessary to
prevent this disease are self-explanatory in a consideration of the
cause of the disease! ji» |m a j% ^ «, ^ iik u" ji
8* |j-l^yiasisr Filarlasis is a disease found in many parts of
the Pacific Ocean Areas , being produced by a worm transmitted by the
bite of the house or common mosquito and occasionally other biting in-
sects. The danger from this disease is not great and consists for^the
most part in its psychological aspects. Since it is commonly associated
with swelling of the extremities and organs of reproduction, there are
many wild stories in circulation pertaining to procreation and allied
activities. The- disease has serious potentialities only when an indi-
vidual is exposed several times, requiring many years. On being re-
moved from the location where the disease is apt to be contracted, the
individual is able to overcome the disease automatically. The symptoms
are produced by an obstruction of the lymphatic system by the worms
and disappear if the involvement does not become too wide spread through
repeated infections. Rumors of resulting sterility, etc. are false.
(1) A particular species of mosquito carries death to two
million people annually — a death ushered in by
chills, fever and other unpleasant manifestations.
It is merely a question of time until all individuals
stationed in a malarious district will contract the
disease. Fortunately, however, the treatment of
malaria represents one of medicine's triumphs so that
deaths rarely occur, providing treatment is started
early. Prevention of malaria necessitates rigid mos-
quito control in addition to thorough training in
discipline in regards to malaria prevention. Troops
in malarious districts should religiously abide by
all rules designed to prevent malaria. These rules ■
pertain to water drainage, mosquito repellents, nets,
use of DDT and suppressive treatment with atabrine.
Being smart is an important attribute in escaping the
blight of malaria.
SUMMARY ; Free advice is offered to expectant combatants of the
Pacific Ocean Areas relative to;
c. Advantage of being well informed in methods of preventing
diseases, sanitation, first aid and bandaging, ditching and ocean sur-
vival, and use of personal equipment.
a. Philosophy, psjrchology and mental hygiene.
b. Desirability of physical fitness..
FLAK INTELLIGENCE Section I
MISCELLANEOUS • Section II
1. Counter-intelligence and Security. ....... 1
2 . Relations with Natives ........ 1
3. Retention of Captured Enemy Material ■ 1
4. Japanese Shipping - JMST ............ 2
1. Functions of Flak Intelligence in the Army Air Forces, Pacific
Ocean .Areas fall into the following categories:
a. To provide, in the planning phase of each mission, a com-
plete analysis of enemy AA defenses of the objective to be attacked.
This analysis includes favorable and unfavorable axis of attack and
withdrawal, necessary evasive action and consideration of altitude and
its effect on enemy AA fire.
b. To provide information on the number, location and types
of enemy AA weapons and data on the capabilities and. limitations of such
weapons and allied fire control equipment.
c. To conduct continuous study of AA fire encountered and the
effect of evasive action and different methods of attack used to mini-
mize effectiveness of this fire.
d. To acquaint combat crews with capabilities and limitations
of enemy AA weapons and to familiarize the crews with evasive action
which will reduce the effectiveness of enemy AA fire.
2. Flak Intelligence Officers are assigned to intelligence sec-
tions of all commands in order to accomplish the functions of Flak In-
telligence. These officers, formerly of the Anti-Aircraft Artillery
of the Coast Artillery Corps, have received special training in Flak
Analysis and, inmost cases, attended the AAF Air Intelligence School.
3. In Army Air Force units in the Pacific Ocean Areas, the follow-
ing terms are used, in referring to enemy anti-aircraft fire and weapons:
a. Intensity (or volume) of fire is referred to as INTENSE,
MODERATE, or MEAGER.
b. Accuracy of fire is designated as ACCURATE or INACCURATE.
c. Type of .AA fire encountered is referred to as CONTINUOUSLY
POINTED, PREDICTED CONCENTRATION, or BARRAGE fire. "
d. Weapons are referred to by terms which describe both type
and, size, viz:
Heavy Guns (75 mm. and above)
Automatic Weapons (20 mm. to 40 mm. inclusive)
Machine Guns (7.7 mm. to 13.2 mm. inclusive)
Corresponding NAVY terms used in designat-
ing type and size of weapon are:
Heavy Guns (75 mm. and above)
Medium Guns (20 mm. to 40 mm. inclusive)
Light Guns (7.7 to 13.2 mm. inclusive)
4. Information on locations and capabilities of enemy radar
is disseminated in order to assist in planning mission. This in-
formation is furnished monthly and is compiled by a joint radar
board in the theater headquarters.
1. COUNTER- INTELLIGENCE AND S E CURITY :
a. All. personnel are directed to keep on the alert for incidents
which might ; indicate activity by enemy agents either through' attempted
sabotage, spread of harmful rumors intended to create dissatisfaction
among military personnel/ attempted espionage, or agitation on behalf
of an enemy country or government. Suspicious incidents should be re-
ported immediately to an intelligence officer who will take necessary
action to inaugurate investigation.
2. RELATIONS WITH NATIVES ; .
a. The Polynesian and Melanesian natives of the Pacific Islands
have proved to be almost invariably sympathetic to U.S. forces and
incidentally not unwilling to receive such of the effects of western
living as grateful American airmen may be willing to dispense. The
few exceptions to this rule are found on : the few islands which have
long been under Japanese domination, and even here in some 'instances
Anglican missionary efforts have made the simple natives favorably
disposed toward us. Most of the Pacific Islands of any size at all
are inhabited and rescue Of Allied airmen has been greatly facilitated
by native aid.
b. The Bonin and Volcano Islands between the Marianas and 'Japan,
however , are inhabited only by Japanese who immigrated from the main
islands during the 19th century. As on Saipan these are a very simple
peasant folk whose well-publi'ci2ed fanaticism is apt to be tempered
with a more basic will to live.
c. Formosa, on the other hand, is populated by nearly six million
people, the majority of whbm are .Chinese, who may be found to be in
many cases genuinely sympathetic to the Allied cause. The Hansei Shot
to the north is inhabited by a mixed racial group, neither Chinese nor
Japanese, and their reaction to Allied activity cannot be told as yet.
In the southern part of the chain old., deep-rooted anti-Japanese atti-
tudes are known. to exist.
d. What the relations of Allied forces with the civilian Japanese
population of the main islands will be can be only conjecture at this
stage of the war, .
3. RETENTION OF CAPTURED ENEMY MATERIAL :
a. The Director of - Intelligence, Headquarters, AAFPOA on behalf of
the Joint Intelligence^ejater , POA^will as si st in the collection,
examination and disposition of all enemy material captured by units
of the Army Air Forces, pacific Ocean Areas. Every item of enemy
military or naval equipment , material or supplies is potentially or
actually of intelligence value in training and indoctrination of
troops, and as such must be preserved f or . study by properly trained
b. All captured material and documents are defined by Army Reg-
ulations' as government property and as" such must be used to their
utmost for the benefit- of our forces. Articles of War 79 and 80 pro-
vide that if. individuals subject to military law are guilty of mis-
appropriation of captured material and documents , they will suffer
such penalty as a courts-martial may direct . However , certain items
may be retained as souvenir pieces if they are first submitted to
an Intelligence Team and stamped by them . as "Examined in the Field
and Passed by Joint Intelligence." Items not passed by the team
must be submitted by them to Joint Intelligence Center for further
study. In the .latter case every effort will be made to return the '
items to finders as soon as they are no longer of intelligence value*
4- JAPANESE SHIPPING - JM3T ; .
a. Japan being dependent upon sources in the Netherlands East
Indies and other occupied areas for many raw .materials, these
necessarily must be moved by ship to the homeland. Defense of the
Japanese Island Empire is also dependent upon supplies reaching the
garrison forces. Japanese shipping therefore has been and continues
to be a priority target in the : Pacific Ocean Areas.
• b ; . Uniform specific report's regarding the characteristics.' of
enemy shipping are essential, particularly as several theaters and
services are reporting. The standard system of JMST recognition
is 'described in detail in the War Zone Familiarization Manual for
the Southwest Pacific Area, previously compiled.
GENERAL Section I
1. Airdromes f ...... . .1
2. Air Raid. Alarms. 1
3» Recognition Procedure. . 3
4. Guarding of Aircraft 3
5. Camouflage .................. 4
ENGINEERING AND MAINTENANCE Section II
1. Salt 'later Corrosion 1
, 2. Long Over-Water Flights. . 1
3. Coral Dust . . . 2
4. Necessity for Self -Sufficiency 2
5. Lack of Low Ground Temperatures 2
6. High Humidity and Intense Rains. ....... 2
7. Overloaded Airplanes 2
FLYING CONTROL Section III
1 f, v %, '% * If" A C
1. - AIRDROMES :
a. Except in rare instances , during the earliest periods immed-
iately following '.anphibidus landings, pilots and combat crew members
coming to duty in the Pacific Ocean Areas Theater of Operations nay ex-
pect the use of -reasonably good airdromes having paved-surface runways
(coral , concrete or asphalt) , 5 000 or more feet in length, .with usuall;
adequate taxi-ways and hard-stands. Either revetments or dispersal ■
areas may also be expected. in most cases,
k« Details of Airdrome Conditions t o be Expected;'
(1) In certain groups of volcanic origin, notably the Hawaiian
Islands and the Marianas, occasional' strips are en* •
■ countered which' have hazards at runway ends that may neces-
sitate relatively short, high approaches. These are the
exception rather than the rule, however, and for the most
part, particularly as concerns the many airdromes located
throughout the area on small coral atolls, runways extend
from ocean to ocean. Left hand traffic patterns predominate
but, approach patterns for individual fields vary greatly
due to geographic and/ or operational, causes. Thorough
individual briefing and, indoctrination study will be neces-
sary for all newcomers to the theater. Naturally, re-
stricted areas also vary from airport to. airport.
(2) Runway construction and repair work by Engineer Aviation
troops in the theater- is 'of' superior quality and it will
be seldom that : crews find soft or dangerous runways. On
many islands, however, the inevitable tropic rainy seasons
■ make for almost constant mud and soft ground anywher e but
on t he actual paved surfaces . Repairs of bomb-craters due
to enemy action occasionally cause temporary soft spots on
■ some" runways in the forward areas.
(3>) Although lack of space in many cases necessitates limita-
tion to one landing strip or two parallel . strips on atoll
airdromes, these are "normally constructed, according to pre-
• vailing headwinds. Necessity for. crosswind landings is
consequently infrequent. Airdromes on. the larger islands
often have multi-directional landing strips.
2. A IR RAID ALARMS ;
a. Wa r ningg^f!' alert s ' ' or air raid alarms normally originate with
the individual Fighter Control Centers concerned (which may be AAF,
Navy or Marine in POA), and are relayed to all organizations in the
area by field telephone and by siren. On islands where strong winds
prevail arid danger exists that some organizations might - not hear the
stationary .siren, patrolling jeeps equipped with auxiliary electric
sirens are also utilized.,
b. Crews of aircraft returning from operational missions or ap-
proaching airdromes for other reasons are cautioned to make full use
of IFF or other identification devices or procedures, both for the
safety of the aircraft concerned and to avoid needless waste of time
and energy of troops on the ground occasioned by useless "false
c. Types of Aler ts:
(1) Condition of Readiness "A" (Red) : This condition of
readiness' will be ordered when a major attack is im-
minent. All units will be prepared for maximum com-
bat effort. All pass or rest privileges will be can-
celled. All personnel will.be maintained at battle
stations or in the immediate vicinity thereof, so as
to be ready for action in a minimum of time. Black-
out will be complete.
(2) Condition of Readiness "3" (Blue) ; This condition of
operational readiness will be ordered when there is
a possibility of minor sea or air attack, . raids, or
sabotage. Observation post' and intelligence personnel
will be especially alert.
(3) Condition of Readiness "C" (White) : This is the normal
condition of operational readiness for the majority of
units in all areas • Continuous observation is main-
tained over water areas. Normal duties, (including
field fortification work, field exercises and train-
ing) in applicable areas are carried on. Units may
be released from field positions for training and re-
creation as prescribed in current orders. Normal
pass privileges in applicable areas are in effect.
(4) Provisions of sub-paragraphs (l) , (2) and (3) above
apply to POA Theater of Operations in general.. In-
doctrination in the functioning of special local
"alert" and defense regulations should be secured by
crew members at each airdrome they report to by as-
signment or as transients.
3. RECOGNITION PROCEDURE:
a. In general, recognition procedure in POA follows that of any-
other, theater, and. new crews in the area will find that their normal
training will have prepared them to grasp its details in a minimum of
time. Military security precludes a detailed discussion in a manual of
b. A brief outline of types of POA recognition signals • follows:
(1) Aldis Lamp : This is the, most common method of signalling
for recognition, particularly in the forward areas. Speci-
fic classified "signals of the day" will always be included
(2) Pyrotechnics : Used only in cases of extreme emergency.
(3) Radio ; By procedure more or less standard throughout the
area. (See Communications Chapter.)
(4) Aircraft Recognition Turns : Vary from day to day. Speci-
fic instructions contained in briefing and in pilots' Op-
(5) Flashing of Running Lights : As per instructions in brief-
c. Specific instructions as to prohibited quadrants of approach or
approach from out of the sun must be rigidly adhered to, particularly
in combat areas .
4. GUARD ING O F AIRCRAFT :
a. The security of, aircraft at army bases in the Pacific Ocean Areas
is the responsibility of the base commanders only "when sufficient per-
sonnel is available to enable the base commander to maintain permanent
airplane guard. Therefore, the security of aircraft against sabotage,
pilferage and tampering at all times rests with flight commanders, air-
plane commanders and pilots, whether or not base guards are available.
b. At bases where adequate airplane guard is not maintained by the
base commander, at least one member of the crew will remain with an air-
plane at all times. In some instances, bases will furnish night guard,
in which case the posting of crew members will not be necessary during
the hours such guard is maintained. ■
c. Parking, taxiing and servicing of an airplane will be supervised
at all times by a responsible member of. its crew.
V ft *
5. CAMOUFLAGE :
a. Camouflage is not stressed because\of ., our . air superiority.
b. As bases are built nearer the Japanese homeland, however.,
more emphasis will be placed on camouflage* • •
ENGINEERING. AND MAINTENANCE
Although engineering and maintenance facilities of POA are ex-
cellent in rear areas , notably in the Hawaiian Islands where Hawaiian
air depots and sub-depots are' located, the vast areas comprising this
theater and the necessity for building the majority of airdromes on
small Pacific Islands make engineering and maintenance, in general, in-
creasingly difficult the farther forward (or westward) airplanes are
required to operate. Therefore, with no intent to infer the existence
of seemingly insurmountable maintenance difficulties in this theater
but rather to present. a forehand knowledge to personnel destined for
service here of problems that will. face them upon arrival, the following
paragraphs are included. Maintenance conditions that are peculiar to
this theater, in comparison with those generally existing on the Main-
land, are outlined ^below.
1. SALT WATER CORROSION :
a. It is not necessary for a metal part to be in contact with sea
water in-order to be attacked by salt water corrosion. Microscopic
particles of salt, possibly originating from breaking waves or the
surf on the shore, are carried to great heights and great distances
inland by the wind. This type of corrosion is frequent on the airplane
skin, instruments such as gyro horizon pivots, external surfaces of
engine cylinders, and on guns. Skin areas that are subject to the
erosion of dust in propeller blasts, such as engine nacelles and em-
pennage surfaces,, are the most actively attacked. High temperatures
appear to accelerate the" corrosion of engine cylinders. Instruments
are severely affected by a slight amount of corrosion. Protective
coatings of light oil are difficult to maintain on guns due to hoat of
firing and the exposed locations in which they are mounted.
b. Paint has been found reasonably effective and coatings of light
oil are temporarily effective in preventing corrosion. Gyro horizon
air filter elements are changed every fifty hours regardless of their
appearance. Inspections of these are more frequent and more thorough
than in some other theaters .
2. LONG OVER-WATER FLIGHTS :
- a. Nearly . all flights are over water, resulting in demands from
crews for a high level of maintenance. Undesirable engines are changed
prematurely regardless of whether or not they show a definite fault or
failure. Some missions in this theater have required as much as twelve
hours or more for completion.
3. CORAL DUST :
a. This dust is very abrasive and is prevalent at all flying
fields during dry weather. It adheres to lubricant covered surfaces ,
.such as extended hydraulic rods, control cables and pulleys > and -
landing gear pivots, resulting in premature deterioration of hy- '•
draulic • packings and freezing of control pulleys.
b. Dust excluder plugs for air rams and exhaust openings are
a .necessity. One set of engine, propeller, and canopy covers and
.two sets of dust excluder plugs should be supplied with each air-
4. ; NECESSITY FOR -SELF-SUFFICIENCY :-
a. Work space is sometimes very limited, so maintenance is done
in revetments wherever available. Parts and tools,, if not on hand,
are hundreds of miles away. ATC delivers small parts for grounded
airplanes, but engines are almost always . delivered by water and are*
received at. certain forward bases as much as a month after requisi-
tioning. .Many repairable parts are returned to overhaul facilities
by. water, resulting in much delay and frequent deterioration due' to
corrosion of the parts.
b. Second echelon activities improvise regularly and frequently
do fourth echelon work.
5* LACK OF LOW GROUND TEMPERATURES :
a« Low ground temperatures have never been encountered in this
theater. No wing or propeller icing has been encountered and wing,
propeller, and windshield de-icers are not carried on the airplanes.
Windshield defrosters are necessary on fighters, due to frosting dur-
ing fast descents. Oil dilution systems are safe-tied off but not
removed. Good cockpit heating systems are required at high altitudes,
6 * HIGH. HUMIDITY MP INTENSE RAINS :
■ . , • ■ ■ ■■ ' ? ' • ■ '
a. There is no shelter for parked airplanes. . : In the forward
areas, maintenance work Is done in the open with the result that
water leaks into airplanes and is * particularly damaging to radio in- '
stallations. Junction boxes and jack boxes are more frequently af-
fected than the. transmitters or . receivers. Canvas covers are five-,
quently improvised for components of radio installations.
7. OVERLOADED AIRPLANES : . . •
a. Overloading is a regular practice in POA Theater of Operations
in order to have suf f ^^j^j^ ^ ^^^^^^ ^^ j^^^ ^ ^^^" ne
thus shortened due .to take-off power being used for longer periods of
time and due to cruising at abnormal power settings for fuel economy-
1. Toward the end of attaining maximum efficiency, in flight con-
trol procedures, it has been the policy in the Army Air Forces Pacific
Ocean Areas to disseminate and promulgate all matters of reference con-
cerning this vital subject to the pilots and crews in this theater.
To effect the foregoing;, close coordination with CINCPAC (Navy Head-
quarters) has been achieved.
2. The -Navy, through the Hawaiian Sea Frontier, has published
such material as "Army and Navy Air Traffic Patterns for Island of Oahu
and Appendix Including Islands of Kaunai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii;
also French Frigate Shoals." Further, through the Air Navigation-Of-
fice, air route manuals and guides, covering the entire Pacific Ocean
Areas, have been published. The Army Air Forces maintains and publishes
CEPARG (Central Pacific Air Route Guide) which is kept up to the minute
through notices to the various operating organizations under the juris-
diction of AAFPQA. CEPARG is being replaced, at present, by a consoli-
dated manual published under the jurisdiction of the (Navy) Air Navi- -
gat ion Office. Further, NATAPOA (Navigational Aids to Aircraft Pacific
Ocean Areas) Is published and distributed by the Director of Communica-
tions, AAFPOA. Radio facility charts, navigation maps, etc. are also
3. Insofar as is practicable, Army Air Forces Regulations relative
to traffic control and air traffic rules are followed implicitly.
AAFPOA, publishes re.gul.at ions and. memoranda to stress certain points
and correct, .difficulties as they develop, thus assuring flying safety.
Control towers are manned by personnel of the AACS and flying fields
are lighted and maintained as directed by current Army Air Forces Reg-
i+. Through 'the Oceanic Air Traffic . Center and the Pacific Wing,
Air Transport Command, proper briefing, weather and radio instructions
are issued crews departing from rear areas on over-water flights.. This
has proved to be a most desirable method, as the facilities of the
forenamed agencies are superior in the respects indicated.
5. Flights between POA and the Mainland and between islands with-
in -POA are "PX'd" from station to station and search missions are im-.
mediately organized for overdue aircraft..
6. The overall picture of flight control in the Pacific Ocean Areas
is good.. Of course, there remains, as. always, room for improvement but
with the attention that is being directed along these lines, It is felt
that the outcome will be most effective.
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS Section I
1. In-Flight Procedures. ...... 1
2. Reports ........ 1
3. Radio Discipline. . . * 3
4. Radio Silence 4
5. Radar Silence ..... 4
6. Radio Interference. ....... 5
RECOGNITION - IDENTIFICATION Section II
1. Authenticators . 1
2. Visual Communications 2
3. Codes and Ciphers . 2
4. Destruction of Cryptographic Aids . 2
5. Call Signs. . . . 2
6. IFF ................. 3
7. Aircraft Approach 4
WEATHER BROADCASTS Section III
1. CENPAC Forward Area Hourly Terminal vtfeather
Broadcasts. .................. 1
2. Emergency Weather Requests. ........... 1
LOST AIRCRAFT PROCEDURE Section IV
1. Standard Procedure. .............. 1
2. Lost Aircraft Procedure *■ In Hawaii or Enroute
to Hawaii .................... 3
3. Lost Aircraft Procedure - Midway Area ..... 5
4» Lost Aircraft Procedure - Central Pacific ... 5
MISCELLANEOUS Section V
1. Emergency Communications, Aircraft to Surface
Vessels . . . 1
2. Inter piano Radio Communication When In Flight . 1
PACIFIC TIME DIAGRAM
Times given are those on which areas are or will be operating and do not always agree with Standard Time Zone Designations for these areas.
How 1 Item
19 min. to
SAME DATE AS GREENWICH
GREENWICH DATE MINUS 01
GREENWICH DATE PLUS ONE
SAME DATE AS GREENWICH
1. IN-FLIGHT PROCEDURES :
(1) Maintain radio silence until called by the ground station
unless emergency exists.
(2) The liaison transmitter will remain OFF except when in ac-
tual use for transmissions.
b. Codes :
"(1) Andusmet cipher and WAF-2 code used
(a) By. aircraft and ground stations for weather trans-
(b) To decipher hourly weather broadcasts.
(2) UCOPAC used
(a) To obtain terminal weather for AACS control towers.
(3) CSP-1270 (Current Series) Pacific Edition, used
(a) For all messages not employing "Q" signals,,
(b) For position reports not sent in conjunction with
weather reports s
(c) For authentication of "CW" traffic.
(4) Clear and coded text will never be mixed in the same mes-
sage. ("Q" signals are clear text.)
(5) Substance and sense coded message should never be referred
to in clear.
2. REPORTS :
a. Time: Zone zero (Greenwich time. will be used in t he- 'headings of
all messages.. Hawaiian Islands are in Zone plus 9-1/2 hours*; tlanton
is in Zone plus 11 hours • Johnston is in Zone ' plus 10-1/2 hours 3 Gil-
berts are in Zone plus 12 hours and the Marshalls are in Zone minus 11
Chapter VII 1 MO I tffil TxJUk, 1111
section i . Irre mm FwW wti~ b fa
Page 2 - I » „ ** V- , 4 , |. 4 > I
b. Encryption of Messages : All messages will be encrypted in
current issue of CSP 1270 series .excepting under the following condi-
(1) Vihen time factor does not permit.
(2) When interception is of no value to the enemy.
(3) On aircraft Voice circuits (VHF, Command) .
(4) Emergency communications,
c. Contact Reports :
(1) Report all contacts in current CSP 1270 series, of sub-
marines, destroyers , or aircraft. . Never report on the
air, or imply,' positions of friendly forces or units
unless ordered to do so. Shore bases will always "Roger"
for messages. If no receipt is received, broadcast the
information four times, listening for a receipt between
(2) . An- urgent "0" classification will be given to all re-
ported contacts. An operational priority will be given
all other messages.
(3) Anticipate enemy deception. AUTHENTICATE all contact
and amplifying reports.
(4) To be of any value contact - reports must contain the fol-
(a) Number and type of enemy "WHAT"
(b) Position of enemy in latitude and longi-
tude, or distance and bearing- from a known
. geographical position u WHERE l J
(c) Course and speed of enemy "WHENCE"
(d) Time of . report . The Zebra time group
of the message will serve to indi-
cate time of contact "WHEN"
Make an amplifying report if above data cannot be
' .. supplied in first report. Sach originator shall
end all amplifying reports with the same' time group
(four numerals plus designating letter) as used on
the i&itiaL»_cQntact jze\
(5) Contact reports will be handled by the "R" method unless
the condition of radio silence in effect at the station
which receives the report prevents. Shore bases shall
show originator in heading when retransmitting contact re-
ports in order to indicate clearly that it is an original
sighting report with time of origin being time of contact.
(6) Aircraft contact reports should be broadcast if, after call-
ing the ground station twice, no answer is received from
the ground station.
d. Final ETA ;
(1) Will be sent in the clear using "QAA" followed by time -
position will not be included. If IFF is not working, or
if plane's ETA is more than l/2 hour at variance -with,
original ETA when 200 miles from any island in the Hawaiian
group, the plane will originate a coded message stating:
(c) APPROACH LANE TO BE USED (OAHU).
3. RADIO DISCIPLINE :
a. Within the first half hour after t ake-off, airplane flight
leader will make a routine checks After check has been made, strict
radio silence will be maintained, except J in an emergency.. In an emer-
gency, open up in the clear with everything at radio operator's dis-
b. An initial breach of radio silence, except in an emergency,
will not be construed as a license to break radio silence further. Do
not endanger your flight and other flights by breaking radio silence.
c. Pilots and radio operators will refrain from "chattering" or
making unnecessary transmissions. This practice "jams" the circuit
and betrays your positions.
d. Assignment of precedence must be in keeping with the true im-
portance of each dispatch.
e. Pilots must avoid alarming an entire flight unnecessarily. If
you wish to warn another airplane of impending danger, precede your
transmission by a call. To broadcast "there's a ZERO on your tail"
diverts the attention of all pilots within hearing distance and may
spoil their operations at crucial moments. Prefixing a specific call
to such a transmission would serve in great measure to isolate that
warning to the individual concerned. Remember, too, tnat "To jo" can
say "Smitty" or "Joe" as easily as you can.
4. RADIO SILENCE :
a. Long range search and .reconnaissance aircraft should maintain
radio silence except: under the following conditions:
(1) Contact and amplifying reports.
(2) Emergency traffic involving operational safety of the
(3) Rescue work*
(4) As directed by the parent base for operational purposes.
b. Strike and bombardment aircraft may break radio silence at
discretion after their objective is reached in order to transmit ap-
prioriate operational information and in case of failure to reach
c. Aircraft group and squadron commanders must enforce rigid
circuit discipline on all aircraft circuits.
d« Radio and communication equipment in aircraft will be tested
and tuned only on the ground using -lowest power possible consistent
with thorough testing and tuning. No call letters or other exr-
pressions which may indicate location or type of aircraft shall be
used. General testings and tuning of aircraft radio equipment will
be conducted at NOON daily as required. General testing and tuning
by a flight immediately before take-off is prohibited .
5. RADAR SILENCE :
a. Condition of radar silence will not be imposed except to
reduce interference in' a large formation or as indicated in (c) be-
b. All conditions of radar silence are removed when in contact
with the enemy.
c. Commanders of forces, groups or units operating independently
will keep at least two air search type radars' in operation within
their force, group, or unit in daytime, and at night if in the area,
of operations.. They may, however, prescribe radar silence with air
search radars while approaching enemy territory for surprise attacks if
they consider it safe to do so.
6. RADIO INTERFERENCE ;
a. Strong enemy interference should be expected on all circuits.
This has not been very successful previously in disrupting our communi-
cations when our operators have not become panicky. In any case,
simply to shift frequency is not enough as it tells the enemy that his
jamming is successful. If enemy interference becomes so effective that
■ impossible to copy through it, the following steps may be taken:
(1) If only a single transmitter or receiver is available there
is danger that the signal, from the officer controlling the
circuit, to shift to the Secondary frequency may. be missed.
In such cases, each station should shift to the Secondary
every minute of the hour which is divisible by five and
listed on the Secondary for forty-five seconds. When it
has been determined that the Secondary frequency is being
used, shift your transmitter to that frequency.
Particular alertness must be maintained on the possibility
of Jap stations receipting for traffic.
RE COGN IT ION - IDENTIFICATIO N
1. AUTHENTIC ATQRS :
a * Us e authen t icate ors ;
(l) If you suspect enemy deception.
■ (2) In answer to a request for authentication.
0) ^n 9±£ c °ntact and amplifying reports.
(4) On all radiotelegraph (key) plain language or transmissions.
b . Radiotelegraph (key) authentication :
(1) Avoid authenticated replies based on M R M or "K"; use
rather a prosig such as "QSA 5'V
(2) - Prosigs to be used in these transmissions:
OJLA - "Authenticate your message."
QPA - "Authentication challenge is ' based on tine
in the time zone indicated by suffix letter separated
by space sign."
QKA - "Authentication of this message (or transmission) is
(3) Systems to be used:
Shore based aircraft and their bases use effective edition
of CSP 1270. '
c. Radiotelep hone (voice) authentication :
(1) To challenge, transmit "Say again' and authenticate", or
"Authenticate your last transmission."
(2) Use of Shackle Authentication System (Annex F to Cent Com
Two) may be directed.
^' Shackle Authen ticator System :
(1) The "Shackle" Cipher (Annex "F" to Cent Com Two) is used as
an authenticator. ; •
(2) The authenticator is placed at the end of the message.
(3) To authenticate using the Shackle Cipher take the first
three letters or characters of the LAST word of the
text of the message, refer to the Shackle Cipher for
the Day r pick out any letter -on the cipher which
"touches" either vertically , horizontally or diagonally
each ! of the three letters from last word of t^ie text.
The three letters thus derived, are the authenticator.
2. VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS : . All airplane crews are expected to be
proficient in the use of flashing lights with shore bases' and ships
at sea. Blinker lights will always be used instead of radio when-
Airplanes in Air
Do not land - Continue RED
to circle airdrome
Circle to. land
Airplanes on Ground.
Do not take off; hold
Clear to take off.
Return to. flying line
3. CODES AND CIPHERS ;
a « Shore-Based Aircraft ;
Effective edition of CSP 1270, extracts of recognition sig-
nals, Merchant Ship Identification signals, effective
b. Shore-based YE/YG equipment sector letters will be set up
in accordance with the following standard sector letter sequence
scribed for the Pacific Ocean Areas. Starting with the North Sector:
4. DESTRUCTION' OF CRYPTOGRAPHIC. AIDS : The person who is using a
Cryptographic Aid is responsible for destroying it in order to
prevent its : compromise" by. falling into enemy hands . He is' "The-
man- on-the-spot", and his decision must be final. Aids which have
been destroyed can be replaced. Aids which have been lost by cap-
ture may mean the loss of t-he war. Each person who is in possession
of Cryptographic Aids must keep this responsibility always in mind.
5. CALL SIGNS : The following is a list. of. call signs to be used
jointly by all Army, Naur ^and-Coast Guard activities at a "Scene of
Action" in the clear on Voice or CW. A "Scene of Action" may be defined
as any particular area in which units may be engaged in a common acti-
city, such as hunting submarines, rescuing survivors - etc". ' .
a. Any ships at scene of action. . . . AQUA
b. Any airship at scene of action. . . ♦ . BARD
c. Any Navy airplane , at scene' of action. . . . . . . . . . CORA
■ d. Any Army airplane at scene of action . . . . . HUNO
e. SOPA (Senior Officer Present Afloat) at scene of
f. Aircraft I am Calling by flashing light (Surface-
craft - aircraft) . ... ... . ... ... . . . . ... LINK
■ ■ \
g. Ship ?tfhich I am. Circling (Aircraft - Surf ace craft) . . . JEBO
a. TURN ON TOUR IFF ON TAKE-OFF AND LEAVE IT ON UNTIL AFTER YOU
HAVE LANDED. There -may be friendly naval units in the area and the
Navy will bring every gun to bear if the aircraft is unidentified,
b. IFF detonators will be inserted before take-off and left in-
serted at all times excepting when maintenance work is being done. IFF
detonators will be removed just before landing to prevent detonation on
landing and will be re-inserted after landing.
c. Test IFF before take-off and. in flight on 320 or 6i+0 Kcs using "
the radio compass. Listen for the "quench radiation signal" (sounds
like a soprano bronx cheer.)
d. Effective IF F Codes :
All aircraft except as otherwise assigned below.
All. surface craft.
All submarines, including Lifeguard submarines.
Any mine laying aircraft.
All combat air patrol land-based fighters and night
e. On being forced down or seeing another friendly airplane. be-
ing forced down or when in difficulty, turn on IFF to EMERGENCY.
f. The radio operating .signal CDUI means turn on your IFF.
CDVI means complete IFF silence.
7- AIRCRAFT' APPROACH ;
a. Aircraft approaching friendly forces from a distance of, sixty
miles or more shall, if not then in contact with the enemy, fly at an
altitude from 3,000 to 4,000 feet . , On sighting friendly force, .they
shall carry out the following procedure:
(1.)' Reduce altitude to 1,000 feet.
(2) Approach will be. made in accordance with the following:
ODD days GCT 045 or 225 degrees TRUE
• - • EVEN days GCT 135 or 315 degrees TRUE •
Do not approach from the bearing of the sun when thq sun
(3) Ship's challenge:
Makes u Z f s n or shines red filter on searchlight,
(4) Aircraft reply:
ODD days GCT, leader leave formation, circle to right;
When back on approach course, dip RIGHT wing twice.
EVEN days GCT, leader leave formation, circle to left;
when back on approach course, dip LEFT wing twice.
Dips must be distinctive (30 degrees) and planes must
return wing to horizontal after each dip.
Turn on running lights and proceed as for daytime re-
plies, except circling may be omitted. Or make emer-
gency pyrotechnic identification signal from effective
(5) Surface units, will acknowledge by making "F's" or
shining green filter on* searchlight at plane*
Local Traffic Control in the Central Pacific Island Bases:
(1) Use radio for local traffic control only in cases of real
(2) Make full use of tower lights for traffic control.
WEATHER BROADCASTS '
1. CEN PAC FORWARD AREA HOURLY TERMINAL WEATHER BROADCASTS :
a. Each base listed below broadcasts its terminal weather accord-
ing to the schedule which follows. These broadcasts are made on the
HOMING BEACON frequencies. Text of message will be repeated once .-
Past Each Hour
Terminal Weather Reports will be transmitted on Strike Fre-
quency oh request.
2. EMERGENCY WSA T BER REQUESTS :
a. When an emergency exists requiring weather in the cj.ear, the
pilot is authorized tc make reqi^est thus:
"EMERGENCY. REQUEST WEATHER (of specified elements)
in clear for (Name of Station) . "
b. This request will be repeated until acknowledged by ground sta-
tion which will arisvtfer:
"EMERGENCY WEATHER IN CLEAR FOR (Station) "
followed by complete weather N report , or such elements
as were requested, in clear.
LOST AIRCRAFT PROCEDURE-
1 - STANDARD PROCEDURE ;
a..., Class A - Routine Check of Position : When the pilot isn't sure
of his position and wants help- from the .radio operator — you should
take.. the following steps: ' • •• . .
- CONTACT GROUND STATION ~.
(1) Ask the ground station to give you your position by direc-
tion finder (d/F)j
(3 Times) . . V (3 Times)
INT QTF INT QTF:
(Ground Station Call) (Airplane's Call)
. . , -jKHf or -"--"-fr
Ask for the true bearing'
' - . . (3 Times) y (3 Times)
INT QTE INT QTE
(Ground Station Call) ' - ■• (Airplane 1 s Call)
(2) The ground station will then ask you to transmit dashes
and call sign.
(3 Times) V (3 Times)
INT.QTG INT QTG
(Airplane's Call) (Ground Station Call)
^ INT QTGK
(3) You will then transmit your call sign once, followed by
five dashes, each ten seconds long — continue this pro-
cedure and listen until the ground station breaks in with
the desired, information.
(4) The ground station will tell you your position or what
course^ to fly and will continue to stand by for your ac-
b. ■ Glass B - Lost - Urgent : Position unknown and in need of
assistance because aircraft might be endangered.,
(1) Use XXX (INTERNATIONAL URGENT SIGNAL) when asking ground
station for position.
(3 Times) V (3 Times) -XXX
(Ground Station Call) ~ (Airplane's Call) (Urgent Sigr.^.l)
INT QTF INT QTF INT QTFK
This will alert the ground station and assure best pos-
sible service in handling the emergency.
(2) The ground station will then ask you to transmit dashes
and call sign.
(3 Times) V 3 Times INT QTG INT QTG
(Airplane's Call) (Ground Station Call) INT QTGK f
- - (3) You will then transmit:
L L L L MO MO MO MO V 1 Time L.LLL
followed by a fifteen second break. Make dashes of the
MO T s at least ten seconds long and keep transmitting ■
until the ground station breaks in with the desired in-
(4) The ground station will tell you your position of whau
course to fly 5 and will continue. to stand by for your
acknowledgment or any other message.
(5) Follow in detail ground station's instructions.
c. Class C - Distress : Definitely in trouble and immediate
(1) Send in clear.
(2) Call ground station and give him your position:
(3 Times) V
( Gr ound St at ion Ca 11 )
(3 Times) .
(Airplane 1 s Call)
QUG QUG QUG
SOS SOS SOS
Send until ground station acknowledges .
(3) Inform the ground station of the following::
(a) Your identification.
(b) Your position.
(c) The nature of the distress.
(d) Any information that is needed to effect speedy rescue.
(4) Transmit as lqng as you can so that D/F stations may have
an opportunity to determine your latest position — BUT
STOP TRANSMITTING LONG EN OU GH FOR THE G ROUND S TATION TO
GIVE YOU NECESSARY INFORMATION . " Screw "the" key down when
you leave the transmitter so that your position will be
known until the plane hits the water.
(5) The INTERNATIONAL FREQUENCY - 500 Kcs will NOT be used ex-
cept by direction from the ground station in control.
(6) FOLLOW IN DETAIL GROUND STATION'S INSTRUCTIONS.
2. LOST AIRCRAFT PROCEDURE - In Hawaii or Enroute to. Hawaii: -
a. The procedure outlined below will -be followed in all cases of
lost Army aircraft, in the Hawaiian area or enroute to Hawaii:
(1) An aircraft will be considered lost and the lost plane pro-
cedure initiated whenever craft is thirty minutes overdue
of its estimated time of arrival without explained cause
for delay, or when airplane declares by radio that it is
The Rescue Control Officer,' VII Air Force Service Com-
mand , is charged with the recovery of all lost army air-
craft in the area. The command ( Bomber , Transport or
Fighter) to which the lost plane is assigned, may send
an officer to the control building as soon as. plane, is
The Rescue. Control -Officer will take full advantage of
all aids open to him in recovery of the aircraft. Those
■aids include Army RDF net, Navy RDF net/ FCC RDF net,
radio plots from the VII Fighter Command, radio stations
and CAA radio ranges .
The crew of the lost aircraft will take actions noted
(a) Radio Operator :
1. Transmit a message as follows, using liaison
transmitter trailing antenna; call ground
station which you have been working three (3)
times; V; plane *s call repeated three (3)
times; .:BT, INT QTE repeated three (3) timed;
state whether you are lost (U) or a routine
bearing (R) is desired: K.
Sample - Message,
WZJ WZJ WZJ V AP02 AP02 AF02 BT
INT QTE INT QTE INT QTE U (or R) K
2. When sending M0 l s use long dashes and call
sign of plane every thirty seconds. Send
MO's continuously for ten minutes or until
told to discontinue. MO f s will be preceded
by four L's each time, the L's will further
establish that /•the jxLane is really lost. • -
"' Call will be, for example: LLLL MO MO MO MO V
2V16 LLLL MO MO MO MO V 2V16. •
(b) Pilot :
1» Climb to 7,500 feet. or higher, if weather and
. remaining gas permit. - Follow instructions
received from ground, station to the letter .
2. Tune Command Radio to 236 KC to receive and
4495 KC to transmit and stand by for possible
contact from tower.
(c) Navigator :
1. Navigator will keep radio operator informed at
all times of latest estimated position.
b. Position Relocation : It is expected that pilots will use every
means under their control to keep track of, or relocate, their positions,
including star sights, their own radio compass bearing, homing or; .known
radio stations y and use of the radio ranges. This should not be con-
strued as indicating that requests should be even slightly delayed if
landmarks or lights are not sighted within fifteen minutes of the ex-
3. LOST AIRCRAFT PROCEDURE - MIDWAY AREA :
a. Aircraft which fail to sight MIDWAY by their ETA shall, not
later than ten (10) minutes thereafter:
(1) Turn on emergency IFF.
(2) Enter a climbing turn.
(3) Request Radio MIDWAY to take RDF bearings on plane.
(4) Level off at £,000 feet and continue circling.
(5) When a satisfactory bearing has been taken, it will be
transmitted to the plane and also the magnetic course to
fly will be given if voice contact has been established.
(6) When the plane appears on the .radar screen, the pilot will
be coached in.
b. During periods of reduced visibility, pilots should not wait for
the ten minutes to elapse before requesting bearings or assistance from
4. LOST AIRCR A FT FROCEDURE - CENTRAL PACIFIC : The following is the
standard procedure in the Central Pacific for lost aircraft having radio
a. No more than ten minutes after ETA and depending on type of air-
craft and local conditions, consider yourself lost.
b. Turn EMERGENCY IFF switch ON (distress signal).
c. Circle (start climb to 10,000 feet, ceiling and gas permitting).
.Chapter VII- t, £ g I J&J[% % | w r lS
3ection IV ^ V^feflwwGH ^
d. Attempt to establish communication with your own base or con-
trol tower (see paragraph 1, Classes A, B and C, this Section, if un-
: (1) Attempt to establish communication with AACS (if estab-
lished on 4595 or 8200 Kcs, CW.
(2) Attempt to establish communication on working frequency
of the plane.
(3) Attempt to establish* communication with any control
station or tower at own base or nearby bases on any
known frequency voice of CW or both.
e. Navigator will keep radio operator notified of approximate
position at all times..
f. IF COMMUNICATION IS NOT ESTABLISHED , THE FOLLOTOIG PROCEDURE
SHOULD BE FOLLOWED :
(1) Each five minutes, send twice in the blind the follow-
"(plane) LOST (Pilot's name)"
(2) During the climb, again:
(a) Check IFF to see that switch is ON and that it is
. on EMERGENCY.
(b) Check receiver coil in use.
(c) If dual coil in use, check to see whether on high
or low side.
(d) Check receiver setting.
(e) If loop or RDF compass installed, attempt bearing
on homing beacons.
(f) Again attempt to tune in on radio range.
(3) During climb, and upon reaching altitude, a gain exhaust
every effort to establish communication with any station.
(4) If night, keep lookout for searchlights. Be alert for
AA fire. Rescue plane may be vectored out to lead you
home, or tbrelay communications.
g. If no aid received and gas about gone, broadcast blind follow-
ing message on own working frequency (if equipment and time permit)^
also repeat same on 500 Kcs. (CW):
(1) "Plane call*' (Pilot's name)' 1 .
(2) "Bailing out" or "Landing".
(3) "At (time)".
(i+) "Weather conditions , cloud cover, squalls or any other in-
formation of possible value to search planes".
(5) Own best estimate of position.
h. All broadcasts are to be made in the clear.
1 - EMERGENCY COMMUNICATIONS ; AIRCRAFT TO SURFACE VESSELS :
a. Aircraft wishing to establish communications on 3000 Kcs with
surface vessels will:'
(1) Send three dashes by flashing light.
(2) Blip engines three times or .make three short zooms,.
b. Surface vessel will acknowledge by:
(1) Sending three dashes by flashing light.
(2) Hoisting the number "three" pennant (blue at the tip -
white in center - red at base).
c. • Aircraft will inform ground station as soon as practicable that
they will or have shifted to 3000 Kcs.
2. INTERPLANE RADIO CCMaUNICATION WHEN IN FLIGHT :
a. • Use "Command Set" or VKF for inter plane communication.
Flight L e ader' s Plane :
(1) If not in visual or radio contact with any member of ^rour
flight and you desire to locate him, notify ground station
in the following manner:
' (1 Time) V _j ( l Time) }.!C
~ (Ground Station Call) 7^ur~Cail7
1 Time K.
(Call of plane or planes out of contact)
(2) Ground station will institute calls to any aircraft in
c * Depu ty Flight Leader's Plane ;
(1) In event of the failure of the flight to perform as
ordered, you will follow above procedure.
All radio operators w il l monitor normal
^^i ^ng frequency on liaison receiver.
PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES ' ' Section I
1. Primary principles 1
2* Responsibility. . * . 1
3 * Training of Crew Members 2
SOP IN COMBAT AREAS - POA Section II
1. Communications 1
2. Reference points and Code Names . 2
3. Reporting Identity and Condition of Survivors . 3
4. Procedure for Aircraft Sighting Survivors ... 4
5. Fighter Cover for Rescue Vessel ........ 5
6. Search for Survivors 5
7. Special Instructions. . 6
PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES
The responsibility for sea rescue of air crews and/Navy crews
has been taken over by the U.S. Navy. Adequate prior • preparation by all
crew members is vital, to a successful rescue. Areas covered are those
of POA which, take in the Japanese Mainland itself. '
1. PRIMARY PRINCIPLES : ■
a. The rescue of flyers forced down at sea is an important and in-
tegral part of our operations against the enemy.
b. Rescue operations often require close coordination between all
units involved including separate commands. -and task forces.
c. Operations are specifically assigned to designated agencies but
at any time any unit, such as aircraft, submarine, surface craft, parti-
cipating, in an action or near. an action, may be called upon to partici-
d. All such units must familiarize themselves with operating pro-
cedures as set up in the SOP for this area.
e. Operation plans and orders for air, surface or amphibious ac- '
tion against the enemy must include specific provisions- for air-sea
rescue according to the SOP for this area.
f. Due to long over water distances prompt action by all rescue
facilities is required.
2. RESPONSIBILITY :
a. Rescue is assigned, in general as follows:
(1) Land based aircraft - area commander of area in which air-
craft is based.
(2) Ship based aircraft - O.T.C. of the force, group or unit
of which parent ship is a part.
(3) Initiative on the part of a subordinate commander is ex- ■
pected as circumstances dictate,
b. Responsibility is defined as the duty to insure:
(1) Prompt information of all incidents requiring rescue.
(3) Close liaison maintained until rescue is affected or
further effort is not indicated.
3. TRAINING OF CREW MEMBERS ;
a. Instructions are given in the proper use and maintenance of
(1) personal and Emergency Equipment; Flying clothing,
over water and jungle kits,
' (2) Flotation Equipment: Rafts - Mae Wests and related
(3) Bail out procedure.
(4) Ditching procedure and discipline.
(5) Rescue Equipment: Dropping kits, signalling equipment }
first-aid, etc. ^
(6) Survival: South Sea Island Lore is stressed.
SOP IN COMBAT AREAS - POA
1. COMMUNICATIONS : ■■
a. The following frequencies are prescribed for air-sea rescue
HF (Voice): 4475 Kcs.
VHF (Voice): 140.53 Mgs.
b. These frequencies shall be used for rescue communications by all
aircraft, surface ships .and submarines participating in rescue opera-
tions. They shall be guarded by units designated as rescue agencies
while on rescue duty, unless otherwise instructed. Lifeguard submarines
for carrier strikes shall, unless otherwise instructed, guard thera from
three hours prior to dawn" on the scheduled date of the first air strike
until the completion of lifeguard duties.
c. Since lifeguard submarines may be submerged at the time trans-
missions are made, information of. planes forced down in an area covered
by lifeguard submarines should be transmitted by responsible commanders
to NPM ( C omSubPa c ) for broadcast on the SUBMARINE FOX, unless acknow-
ledgment from the submarine has been received. Normally, radio silence
may be broken for this purpose during attacks.
d. . Operations plans and orders shall, where appropriate, set forth
frequencies for communication with air-sea rescue service of other
areas, such as the Southwest Pacific Area.
e. Submarines and surface ships, when searching for downed aviators
shall guard 500 Kcs, the frequency upon which signals are emitted by
the Gibson Girl, a small hand operated transmitter, generally carried
in a long range aircraft and frequently dropped by parachute to sur-
f. Submarines assigned to lifeguard stations will generally be
equipped with IFF equipment. To avoid alerting the enemy, such sub-
marines will not .employ IFF until air strikes are well underway and
the presence of our aircraft is already known to the enemy. Effective
IFF codes are as follows:
Code ONE — All aircraft, except as otherwise assigned below.
Code TWO — All surface craft.
Code THREE — Anti-submarine patrol aircraft.
Code FOUR — Unas signed.
Code FIVE — - All submarines, including lifeguard submarines,
Page 2 ;
Code SIX — All' .combat air patrols, land based fighters and
night fighters.. ■
Emergency Selection — Any plane forced down or seeing another
friendly plane forced down, except in a. combat
melee within visual range of friendly forces.
g. When authentication of voice transmissions is required, CSP
1270 shall be used. •
2. REFERENCE POINTS AND' CODE NAMES, :
a. In the interest, of. security as well, as simplicity, reference
points are established in those areas where . it is anticipated that
the majority of water landings -will occur in connection with combat
operations. These points are to be used in reporting the position
of all forced landing incidents throughout such operations and for
ho other purpose. . '
b. A series of six code names is assigned to each reference
point.- These names rotate daily, changing. at 1800 GCT, each name
being effective during the twenty-four hour period beginning 1800 -
GCT on the date for which it is prescribed. Reference points will
not be referred to except by the established code names.
c. Air-Sea Rescue Charts for each reference point are issued'
by Commander Air Force, Pacific Fleet. These charts have the re-
ference point at the center, with bearing and distance lines over-
printed, and are designed to assist pilots in giving accurate posi-
tion reports. They will be carried, 'by all pilots when operating '
in the area of the particular reference point.
d. ' The position of any forced landing or survivor is to be '
reported in bearing and distance from the nearest reference 1 point.
Three words are used . to report position:
(1) Distance in nautical miles from reference point.
(2) Code word for .reference point used.
(3) True bearing from reference point. '•
EXAMPLE: "15 Hairbreadth Harry 180". Meaning survivor (or
survivors) down fifteen miles bearing 180 degree
true from, reference point (assuming "Hairbreadth
Harry" • to be the. applicable code word) .
Any departure from this syst em compromises the position
' , of the survivors and. -exposes the rescue facilities, to
e. It should be noted that the code name serves not only to identify
the reference point, but also as the voice call ; for any or all rescue
agencies to whom the position report is addressed. No further voice _
call is required or should bo employed. Thus a complete message might
read: "This is 99 Prattle,' 15 Hairbreadth Harry 180. Over." This
message would be regarded as addressed to- a lifeguard submarine on sta-
tion, a rescue PBM on station, a surface ship or rescue VOS that might
be concerned in the rescue incident, or to several of such rescue
agencies. ■ ..'.'■',.,"■■
f . If the position of both the survivor and the rescue vessel is
known, the "sighting" aircraft should coach the rescue vessel to that
position. Do not use the rescue vessel as a reference point or other-
wise state bearing and distance- from the rescue vessel to the survivor.
The rescue vessel should be directed by being given courses to steer.
WRONG METHOD: "Hairbreadth Harry — survivor 3 miles bearing 120
degrees from you" or "3 Hairbreadth Harry 120",
CORRECT METHOD: "Hairbreadth Harry'— steer course 120 degrees for
3 miles", or (if heading of the rescue vessel is
also known) "Hairbreadth- Harry — change course 30.
degrees left and go 3 miles".
Note that here the reference point code'; name is used only as a voice
call for the rescue vessel*
3- REPORTING IDENTITY' AND CONDITION OF SURVIVORS : ■
a. In addition to position, the identity and condition of survivors
is necessary for efficient rescue operations and should also be re-
ported, following the position report in the following order:
(1) The TBS code' call of the'- survivor' s parent carrier or
base should be stated where known. •
(2) The type of aircraft if known, using either plain language
or the following code:
CHICKEN. .... .fighter
/HAWK...'.- dive bomber (2 man crew)
FISH. .... ....torpedo bomber (3 man crew)
EAGIE. ...... .medium bomber (6 man crew)
BOX CAR. heavy bomber (9 or 10 man crew)
MONSTER. ... ..VLR aircraft (11 or 12 man crew)
(3) The condition of survivors, in accordance with the follow-
GOODYEAR. . . .survivor(s) in a raft
YELLOW JACKET. . .... .survivor (s) in. life jackets
DA VET JONES. . „ » . . * survivor (s) without life jackets.
(4) The number of survivors*
(5) If dye marker is showing, the word "EVERGREEN" should
EXAMPLE: "15 Hairbreadth Harry ISO Prattle Chicken Goodyear
One Evergreen. " •
MEANING: One fighter pilot of the LONG ISLAND down 15 miles
bearing ISO degrees true from the reference point
in a life raft with dye marker showing, (assuming
Prattle to be the TBS code call of the LONG ISLAND. )
4. PROCEDURE FOR AIRCRAFT SIGHTING SURVIVO RS:
a. When a survivor is sighted by any air craft. or group of air-
craft, the following procedure, shall be followed, subject only to
the requirements of assigned tactical missions:
A report of the survivor as outlined above shall be
Not more than two aircraft shall orbit the position of
the survivor, one of the aircraft using emergency IFF
and climbing to an altitude equal to 1000 feet for each
ten miles from base.
The orbiting aircraft shall remain on station until re-
lieved by other aircraft or until assured that a rescue
vessel has the survivor in sight, unless forced to re-
turn to base by fuel shortage or material difficulty.
The rescue vessel shall notify the aircraft as soon as
the 'survivor has been sighted.
b. When the rescue vessel has been sighted by the orbiting air-
craft, they should assist the rescue vessel in accomplishing the
rescue by the following methods, where applicable:
(1) ' If a plane wishes to assure himself of the identity of
a submarine he may do so by directing the 'submarine to
change course to the right or left a number of degrees.
The orbiting aircraft should zoom .the position of the
survivor, if possible, perpendicularly to the line of
bearing between the survivor and the, rescue Vessel.
(3) An aircraft desiring the rescue vessel to follow him to-
ward a survivor should circle the rescue vessel twice,
opening and closing the throttle, then fly off toward the
survivor. ■ ■
(4) If the aircraft is forced to depart before the rescue vessel
has sighted the survivor, the spot should be narked,
by smoke if possible. Dye marker is hard to detect from a
submarine or surface, vessel.
(5) Orbiting aircraft should, if occasion arises, further as-
sist the rescue vessel in the manner prescribed for fighter
5. FIGHTER COVER FOR RESCUE VESSEL ;
a. Where practicable, and when the circumstances dictate their
employment, a two plane fighter cover shall be assigned by the respons-
ible commander to operate with the lifeguard submarine or other rescue
vessel during strikes and rescue operations. The duties of the fighter
cover are as follows:
" (l) Protect the rescue vessel from enemy air or surface attack
and from enemy shore fire.
(2) Prevent friendly aircraft from making a threatening ap-
proach which might force a lifeguard submarine to dive or
cause a surface rescue vessel to open fire or take evasive
(3) Assist the rescue vessel in locating survivors. When
practical, cover should search in separate units the area
covered. As a general rule, however, cover should remain
within visual distance of the rescue vessel. -If necessary
to depart, plane should transmit its true approach bearing
to the rescue vessel before returning.
6. SEARCH FOR SURVIVORS :
a. Sighting Aids by Day : Units searching for survivors by day.
should bear in mind the following sighting aids:
(1) Yellow rubber rafts.. These are quite difficult to sight
from either surface or air. A limited number of large
black rubber boats equipped, with . sails and out- • •
board motors have been distributed to the fleet. These
boats can be dropped from aircraft, in flight to survivors.
^ Life a IT *
(2) Green dye marker : This can be seen farther than a raft,
even from a surface ship, although its greatest use is
(3) White smoke bomb : This is the best daylight marker for
sighting by surface vessels.
(4) Signal mirrors : These are effective at great distances
on sunny days, but are difficult to aim accurately from
a small rubber raft.
(5) Ye llow kite and white rubber balloon : These are included
with the Gibson Girl, which is sometimes dropped to sur-
vivors. Although their primary purpose is to raise the
antenna of the Gibson Girl, either may be used also as
an aid to sighting. -
b * Sighting Aids at Might :- , "
(1) Waterproof signal -lights are carried by most pilots.
(2) The Gibson Girl transmitter is so designed that it can '
also be used to illuminate a small light which can be
used for signalling at night.
(3) Whistles are carried by pilots to attract attention of
vessels at close range. •■'
(4) Some rafts are equipped with a radar reflecting device.
If not so equipped, a survivor in a rubber raft should
attempt to raise one or more metal objects as high as
possible above the level of the raft to facilitate
c * Procedur e for Night Search by Rescue Vessel :
(1) When the searching vessel enters the area in which the
presence of the survivor is suspected, a green Very star
is fired at frequent intervals. (This method should not
be used if enemy planes or patrol vessels are in the
vicinity.) The survivor seeing. this signal will reply
with a Very star (red) if he has one, otherwise, by any
means available, such as flashlight or flare. The
searching vessel will then acknowledge with two green.
Very stars. ■ Thereafter further signals' may be exchanged
to facilitate the approach to the survivor.
7. SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS:
a. Pilots are bri
to make forced landings to leeward of
enemy territory, if possible, so that their drift will be away from the
b. Open-sea landings by rescue aircraft should be attempted only in
emergencies when no rescue vessels are available. Ordinarily rescue
seaplanes will be employed in searching for and orbiting survivors, in
directing rescue vessels to the spot, and in dropping supplemental emer-
gency gear to survivors. VOS aircraft are well adapted to missions in
sheltered waters, particularly in places where submarines or surface
craft cannot go.
c. "/tfhere a submarine is unable to approach a survivor on the sur-
face because of the proximity of enemy shore batteries or strafing by
enemy planes, the submarine may attempt to pick up the survivor by ap-
proaching submerged and towing him by periscope to a position where it
can surface. The submarine should perform the operation at not more
than three knots. It should approach the survivor from upwind and, if
possible, on such a course that the survivor will not be towed closer
to the enemy shore before the retirement course is set. In the early
stages, when the periscope is first sighted, the survivor should attempt
to hold his position to assist the approach of the submarine. If there
is danger of a miss, the survivor should instantly attempt to get into
position ahead of the direction of movement of the periscope, A sub-
marine cannot back when submerged, so that after a miss it would be
necessary for the submarine to make another complete circle to pick up
the survivor. The submarine may stream a line, secured to a periscope,
with a lifejacket or other buoyant object tied to the free end, in
which case the survivor should grasp the towline or lifejacket tightly,
or, preferably, secure his life raft to the towline. It is , important
that the survivor should not lose his life raft. If no towline is
streamed, the survivor should use the line with which his raft is
equipped to pass over the top of the periscope, which the submarine will
attempt to have projecting no more than four feet above the water.
About twenty feet of line is required. The end of the line should be
held in the hand. so that quick release can be made if the" raft capsizes.
d. Mien a rescue has been effected, empty life rafts shall be taken
aboard or ' destroyed by the rescue agency to prevent other units from
making needless investigations for possible survivors.
e. Results of all incidents investigated by lifeguard submarines,
other rescue vessels, or planes shall be reported to the parent carrier
or base as promptly as possible,. not only when personnel are rescued,
but in all cases. In reporting results of rescue operations give names
of all persons rescued and the names of the ships or units to which they
are attached. Include condition of health of survivors if other than
satisfactory. When radio silence Is being maintained, reports may be
transmitted on VHF to nearby aircraft for relay to the parent carrier or
Map of Air Routes in POA 1
AIDS TO NAVIGATION • Section I
1 . Maps ... - , . l
• 2. Route Guides. 1
3. Dead Reckoning Navigation . . 2
4. Radio Facilities . . . 2
5. Celestial Navigation. ......... 2
6. Loran Navigation. 3
7. Emergency procedures. ... 4
CARE OF EQUIPMENT Section II
FLIGHT PLANNING , Section III
1. Planning a Flight ........ ... 1
2. Pilot-Navigator Coordination. .......... 1
3. H Time-Ticks 11 1
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
SEE TABLE OF COURSES AND
DISTANCES THIS SECTION.
IN NAUTICAL MILES
<f r » fl/)F PID
; Chapter IX
AIDS TO NAVIGATION
1 - MAPS ;
a - AAF Long Range Air Navigation Charts - Scale 1:3,000,000:
(1) Caution: Many island • check points are inaccurately-
plotted although the comparative shape and size o£ atolls
and islands are drawn to scale.
(2) Distances and courses measured . on Mercators.
b • AAF Aeronautical Chart-Lambert Conformal Conic Proje ction -
Scale 1:500,000: ~~ "T ~ '~TT~^T~~ r ~~
(1) Used on operational flights in the Hawaiian Islands.
c. Loran Lo ng Range Navigation a l Air C harts - Scale 1:3,000,000:
(1) Coverage: The general routes of air operation in the area
of 25° North to 10° South Latitude, and 150° West to 155°
2. ROUTE GUIDE S : .
a. CEPARG (edited and kept up-to-date by Headquarters, Seventh Air
Force, Office of Assistant Chief of Staff, A-2.):
(1) Information dealing with airfields and airfield facilities,
communication- and lost-distress procedures in POA Areas.
b * Seventh Ai r Force Navigational Aids to Aircraft (Published by
Air Communications Office, Seventh Air ForcefT'™' " v . .
(1) Information on communications- facilities in use at POA
(a) Air-Ground Tower, Voice, Air-Ground CW.
(b) _ VHF Homer, YH or YJ Homer..
' (c) Range and YG facilities'.: "
c. AAFPOA Navigational Aids to Aircraft (Short title - Natapoa", .
Published by Director of Communications: Office, AAFPOA) :
Section I .
(l) Covers the same information as Seventh AF Navigational
Aids to Aircraft.
3. DEAD RE CKONING NAV IGATION:
a. Dead reckoning is the basis of all navigation in POA.
(1) Reading drift , wind direction and velocity from clouds
and water. . • . .
(2) Proficiency in follow .the .pilot lead navigator procedure.
(3) Pin-pointing the aircraft's position in, flying around
4. RADIO FACILITIES :
a n In rear areas facilities are dependable.
b. In forward areas facilities are some times inoperative. and
should not be used except as a check on dead reckoning and celestial
5. CELESTIAL. NAVIGATION :
a. The use of octant and the evaluation of observations:
(1) Knowledge of flight characteristics of aircraft and the
cooperation between pilot and navigator during "shots' 1
make for more accurate octant observations.
(2) Ability to differentiate between. good and bad octant
(1) Octant and drift meter.
(2) Upper gun turret, astro-compass and mounts for astro-
compass in navigation domes.
c. Solution of celestial triangle and plotting observations;
d. Use of Rude Star Finder, Air' Almanacs, and HO. 218, 214,
(1) Use of Moonrise and Sunrise Tables.
(2) Polaris Correction Tables.
(3) Checking star position and altitude in overcast conditions
by- the Rude Star Finder.
• e. A stro-Co mpass: Due to the majority of flights being over -water,
this is one of your most useful instruments and care should be. taken of
it and its mount. In using instrument be sure that mount is aligned
properly with the fore and aft axis of the aircraft.
(a) Checking compass for deviation.
(b) Checking true heading of aircraft and steering a
(c) Star recognition and approximate dead reckoning longi-
tude and latitude.
(d) True heading by sighting and Polaris.
(2) Caution: Level bubbles before each observation and take
four or five observations to get a good average.
f . Finding deviation:
(1) Polaris and astro-compass.
(2) Top gun turret:
(a) Very accurate since spaces between degree .markings are
so much larger than on. an astro-compass.
■ (b) Caution: Operate manually and not electrically. (The
surging of current through turret may throw magnetic
compasses off four or five" degrees. )
g. Proficiency in flying landfalls and noon-day fixes:
(l) Small islands plus long water distances between islands
make pin-pointing and accuracy in navigation a "must 11 .
h. Latitude by meridianal altitude and longitude by single LOP.
6. LORAN M LIGATION t
a. The flight routes in POA. are covered by Loran,
(1) Experienced operators may secure excellent results in
pin-pointing the aircraft's position.
(2) A small proportion .of -pur- present- supply of aircraft in
POA have the airborne equipment.
7. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ° '
a. If uncertain of DR position and ETA for base is almost up A
have radio operator start keying ground station for radio or radar
fix. Guess work and luck pay no dividends in POA.
CARE OF EQUIPMENT
1. Due to the climatic conditions and extreme humidity- peculiar
to this theater it is necessary to take extra precaution in the use and
care of equipment for the following reasons:
a. Octants and astro-compasses will rust and corrode at all
> . (l) Bubble chambers in octants tend to swell (A-12 Octant).
b. Computers of bakelite construction and Weems plotters will
warp due to heat and humidity.
c. Replacement of equipment;
(1) May be procured s in rear area in Hawaiian Islands.
(2) Practically unprocurable in forward areas.
1. PLANNING A FLIGHT : '
a. Check on weather reports and plan flight accordingly,
h. Plot courses to take advantage, of any available chcak points.
(1) Check for restricted areas and by- passed Jap bases,
(a) These by-passed Jap bases may be used as check points.
(b) Caution: Avoid flying directly over these bases since
low flying aircraft may be fired upon.
(2) Recognition codes for the day.
2 - PHOT-NAVIGATOR COORDINATION :
a. Pilot must fly the navigator's heading without unnecessary de-
viations from course.
b. Pilot should assist navigator in pilotage navigation.
c. On any flight altitudes and air speeds } courses and ETA. should ^
be discussed prior to take-off.
3. "TIMS-TICKS "; '
a. Constant use of celestial navigation calls for. frequent checking
of master chronometers.
: i T s' s t i I 1 1* |
LEATHER SERVICE Section I
1. Organization of the Weather Service. . . . . . 1
2. In-flight Reports. ...... ... 1
3. Weather Reports. 2
4. "In Clear" and "Secure" Areas. ......... 2
5. Codes and Ciphers. 2
CLIMATOLOGY OF THE POA • Section II
1. The Equatorial Zone. , 1
■ 2. Typhoons ......... 1
3. The Northeast Trades 2
4. Seasonal Monsoon Zone. . . 2
5. The Westerlies * . . 2
6. Hurricanes ..... ... 3
7. The Southeast Trades ........ 3
8. Effect of Terrain. ....... 3
f?c !tf Section I
Page 1 .
x - ORGANIZATION OF THE WEATHER SERVICE :
a. The 1st provisional .Weather .Group, with Headquarters at APO #953
is charged by the Commanding General, Pacific Ocean Areas, with provid-
ing an adequate weather forecasting service for U.S. Army organizations
in this area. ..In the group are two squadrons, the ' 7th Weather Squadron,
which serves 'the Central Pacific, and the 17th Weather Squadron, which
serves the South Pacific. Complete cooperation is maintained with the
U.S. Naval Weather Forecasting Service in the same area. /
b. Army and/or Navy weather stations are located on all islands and
atolls where such service may be required. Each station is prepared to
give complete twenty-four hour forecasting service.. In order to provide
this service, weather reports, are gathered by AACS from the USAAF in
the CBI Theater. Pilot In-flight Reports (see paragraph 2) represent a
major source of weather information.
c. Weather information is 'available to flying personnel, Army
Ground Forces personnel, operational sections, amphibious units, staff
weather officers, and all other interested organizations and indivi-
duals. Several weather centrals are in operation to provide special
services to those agencies requiring such information. Staff weather
officers are requested to contact the weather group commander and the
nearest weather station or central for the service that is required by
2 « IN-FLIGHT REPORTS ; '
a* The conditions under which the weather service is operating in
this area require that a large portion of the weather data be gathered
by flying personnel. From complete and accurate in-flight reports,
weather forecasters are able to reconstruct the weather situation and
supply better weather forecasts.' From In-flight reports, data may be
obtained relative to cloud formations, winds, location of severe weather
conditions, and height of icing level. The wind data proves very use-
ful in supplying other crews with the proper winds over the same or
b. Navigators in the. Pacific Gcearr Areas will find that forecasted
winds are quite reliable. However, sudden changes in the weather con-
ditions may bring about changes in forecasted, winds. For this reason,
it is suggested that drifts be taken and that winds be checked for ac-
curacy. All wind data taken by navigators should be indicated on In-
Flight Reports so that others may use the information to their advantage,
! ' i *
3. WEATHER REPORTS ; Hourly terminal weather is broadcast on homing
beacons at 35 minutes past the GOT hour at all stations in the PO^.
Most of these stations also broadcast terminal reports at 05 minutes
past the GCT hour. In addition to the homing beacons broadcasts ,
weather reports can always be obtained by making a request to the
nearest radio station.
^ "IN- .CLEAR" AMD "SECURE" AREAS : The POA and SWPA are divided into
two areas, with respect to the methods used In the dissemination of
feather information. These are knoxm as the "in clear" and the "secure"
areas. (See- map)
5. CODES AMD CIPHERS ;
a ' The "in clear" area;
(1) In this area all terminal reports are given in clear
text, regardless of whether it is transmitted by voice
or CW. Voice transmissions are made' in plain language,
giving the weather elements in the order in which they
appear on the UCOPAC form. C/W transmissions are made
in WAF-3 code un enciphered.
(2) In-flight reports are encoded in WAF-3 and transmitted
in clear text.
k. The "secure" area;
(1) The UCOPAC cipher consists of a permanent frame ,and an
accompanying UCOPACARD that changes daily at 1200 GCT.
This cipher is the principal means by which a pilot in
. this area deciphers weather, information which is ob-
tained" while in flight. All request-reply traffic
should be made in UCOPAC except in case of emergency
when the pilot may request that weather reports be
transmitted in the clear. All scheduled broadcasts of
weather reports on homing devices in this area are en-
ciphered in UCOPAC.
(2) - The WAF-3 code enciphered in ANDUSMET cipher is used by
aircraft making in-flight weather reports. By using
the WAF-3 code it is possible to report ail xveather ele-
ments, as well as position, elevation -and, time of obser-
vation. The WAF-3 code may' also be used for requesting
terminal conditions, route forecasts, and terminal fore-
casts for either the stations called or any other sta-
tion desired. The 'ANDUSMET cipher sheet changes each
day at 1200 GCT and has complete instructions for use
printed on each.
■fc~ f t_..i.
Transmission of weather reports in clear text in the
"secure" area will be made only in case of emergency. In
the event a pilot decides that a state of emergency exists 9
the following procedure should be used:
(a) Pilot will state: "Emergency , request IJCOPAC weather
in the clear for (name of station)." The request will
be repeated until acknowledged by control tower or
(b) The ground station will transmit: "Snergency weather
in the clear" and will then give the weather elements
in the order given on UCOPAC form, in the clear. * The
word clear will be transmitted at the beginning and
the end of the message.
CLIMATOLOGY OF THE POA
N . The weather and climatology of the Pacific Ocean Areas is
directly related to the general circulation of the air over the area.
This circulation can be easily understood by a brief study of the dia-
grams below. ,
1. THE EQUAT ORIAL ZONE: (Sometimes referred to as "Doldrums")
a. While in POA the term "equatorial zone" will be used to axplian'
a weather area near the equator. In and near the "equatorial zone"
will be found different types of "fronts", "depressions", "shear- -lines",
b. • The weather that occurs in the. equatorial zone will -wary- in
intensity from towering cumulus with light showers" to ..well • developed '
cumulonimbus- with stratus at different levels, moderate to severe tur-
bulence, and- heavy showers. Large areas will be encountered in which
there will be.no weather at all with fair weather cumulus widely dis-
tributed throughout the locality.
c. Pilots flying in POA have different techniques for going thru
weather — some fly under cloud formations, others try to top the
clouds, and another group, fuel permitting,,, look for a "thin spot" and
fly through. The best altitude for most flying has been found to exist
at 8,000 feet. - '
d. The equatorial zone '-is comparable to the northern part of
South America from Trinidad to Natal.
2. TYPHOONS : (Hurricanes in, the Atlantic Ocean and. South Pacific)
a. The equatorial zone is also an area of typhoon generation.
The average traciLs '££ Jfote t-mhomx^Bmiw&WW^:^^ to west and to the
Page 2 •
north east of the Philippines ..where they recurve towards the Japanese
Empire. However, at tSjfe$6. typhoons do" not recurve but go through
the Philippines and South China Sea towards China and Indo-China.
Typhoons vary in area, ranging from fifty miles in diameter in the in-
cipient ' stages to. approximately. 800 miles in diameter for a fully de-
veloped typhoon. Torrential rains, violent turbulence, large areas
of dense clouds and winds of eighty knots or greater are characteristic
of a fully developed typhoon. •
..--b.. -pacific typhoons are more intense than the Atlantic variety —
the average well developed typhoon may be compared to the New. England .
••"hurricane of 1933. -
•3. THE NORTHEAST TRADES i -
a. The^ winds in,. the Northeast Trades 'are as they imply — pre-
dominately from, the northeast. \ The Northeast Trades area generally
has excellent flying conditions. The normal cloud type is a fair
weather or "trade 15 cumulus and light showers may be encountered. The
trades in the. Northern Hemisphere are best developed during the
northern winter and likewise, in the Southern Hemisphere. As in-
dicated previously, £,000 feet has been found to be an ideal flight
altitude. . ....
b* Bermuda is affected by the Atlantic trades .and experiences •
weather similar to the trade area in the Pacific.
4. SEASONAL MONSOON 1 ZONE :
a. Due to the large land masses, such -as Asia and Australia, a
seasonal flow of air known as "monsoons" develops. The monsoons for
the most part affect areas in- the. Western Pacific.. The northerly
monsoon in winter (Northern Hemisphere) is a cold, semi-dry air ^ which .
replaces' and often converges with the trades. The boundary or'
weather front between the different streams will have towering cumulus,
turbulent air, marked wind shifts, and an icing level at approximately
12,000 feet. ' ? ' '
b. The southwest monsoons' (summer months) blow steadily 'from the-
southwest and are characterized '-by -excessive cloudiness, rain squalls,
and thunderstorms. This monsoon flow produces the worst .weather in
the Philippines Area and often typhoons as well as other tropical dis-
turbances form to increase the -severity -'of the" weather . " Fortunately ,
the United States is not under- : t'he ;: infiuehce of a monsoon and it is
difficult to make a satisfactory comparison.
acific is "that
region of the prevailing westerlies which lies north of 40° North Lati-
tude. The prevailing winds are westerly (southwest to northwest) all
year but are. stronger in the winter than in the summer due to the de-
velopment of "depressions" in the winter in- the Aleutian area. The
migatory depressions and associated frontal passages make the weather
of this region variable from day to day, especially in winter.
h. The Japanese Empire is under the influence of the Seasonal Mon-
soon Flow and the westerlies in the \vinter time. Reports from this
area indicate that in the winter there is considerable weather with
heavy cloud formations, precipitation, reduced visibilities, . severe tur-
bulence, and conditions favorable for icing formation accompanied by
high winds at various altitudes. There are times, however, . following
the passage of a deep storm, when the Japanese Empire enjoys fair wea- .
ther, even in the winter; time.
c. Pilots who have flown the North Atlantic Route near Newfound-
land and Greenland in the winter -months have experienced weather similar
to that which exists over the Japanese Empire from November to April.,
°» H URRICANE S s (Typhoons in the North Pacific) Hurricanes occur in
summer (December - March), originating in the region of the equatorial
zone. Movement is in /a WSW direction, recurving in a counter-clockwise
direction so that by 30° south the hurricane is usually moving south-
east. Fully developed hurricanes affect an area up to #00 miles in dia-.
meter, and wind velocities of eighty knots or greater may be encountered. •
The heavy, precipitation and severe turbulence encountered in these
storms make flying in their vicinity extremely dangerous
7. THE SOUTHEAST TRADES : To the south of the equatorial zone lies a .:
zone of predominately- southeasterly' winds. Near the equator the easter-
lies extend above 30,000 feet, but farther south westerlies prevail
aloft throughout the year. This trade wind zone is a region of excellent
flying conditions. Fair weather cumulus and light showers are the usual
8. EFFECT OF -TERRAIN : Throughout the Pacific, at those islands where
there are hills and mountains, extensive cloud formations will develop.
Cumulus may build up to 30,000 feet near the mountains precipitation on
either the windward or leeward side.